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UUM Journal of Legal Studies (UUMJLS) Vol. 9, July 2018

Abdul Basir Mohamad
 
 
Rohana Ahmad
 
Junaidah Abd. Karim, Tay Pek San, Siti Zaharah Jamaluddin & Abdul Muhsin Ahmad
 
 
 
 
Mohammad Abu Taher, Siti Zaharah Jamaluddin, Jal Zabdi Mohd. Yusoff, Zulazhar Tahir & Sridevi Thambapillay
 
Tasnuva Mahbub Chowdhury, Mohammed Rahel
 

 
THE PROVISIONS OF WATER AND GARBAGE POLLUTION IN STREET, DRAINAGE AND BUILDING ACT, 1974: A VIEW IN ISLAMIC LAW
Abdul Basir Mohamad

Abstract: The statute relating to environmental conservation plays an important role to protect water and garbage pollution. The establishment and enforcement of the Street, Drainage and Building Act 1974 is to protect the people’s rights and interests in order to safeguard the environment from being polluted. There are a few provisions in this Act relating to water and garbage pollution and protection of water resources from any pollution. Therefore, this article will examine the provisions in relation to water and garbage pollution in the Act and then identify similar discussions in Islamic law, which deal with the protection of water and garbage pollution. A qualitative method is used to obtain data for this paper. Analysis of documents from primary and secondary sources was executed inductively, deductively and comparatively using the Act and Islamic reference sources which was then documented in a descriptive report.

Keywords: Islamic Law, Malaysian Law, Environmental Conservation, Water Pollution.

Abstrak: Statut yang berkaitan dengan pemuliharaan alam sekitar memainkan peranan penting bagi melindungi pencemaran air dan sampah. Pembentukan dan penguatkuasaan Akta Jalan, Parit dan Bangunan 1974 adalah bertujuan untuk melindungi hak dan kepentingan rakyat dalam aspek perlindungan alam sekitar dari tercemar. Dalam Akta ini, terdapat beberapa peruntukan yang berkaitan dengan pencemaran air dan sampah serta perlindungan sumber air dari sebarang pencemaran. Oleh itu, kertas kerja ini akan mengkaji peruntukan berhubung dengan pencemaran air dan sampah yang terdapat dalam Akta dan kemudian mengenal pasti perbincangan yang sama dalam undang-undang Islam, yang berhubung dengan perlindungan air dan sampah. Kaedah kualitatif digunakan untuk mendapatkan data dalam menyediakan artikel ini. Analisis dokumen dari sumber primer dan sekunder dijalankan dengan cara induktif, deduktif dan komparatif antara Akta dan sumber rujukan Islam. Selepas data dikumpulkan, ia ditulis secara deskriptif.

Kata Kunci: Undang-undang Islam, Undang-undang Malaysia, Pemuliharaan alam sekitar, Pencemaran air, Pencemaran sampah sarap.

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TRADE UNION RECOGNITION IN MALAYSIA: LEGAL ISSUES
Siti Suraya Abd Razak

Abstract: In Malaysia, the Federal Constitution protects the worker’s enjoyment as to freedom of association, in particular, the right to form and join the trade union. However, due to security purposes, various restrictions have been imposed on trade union activities. The recognition process is currently showing a decline in the number of recognition awards due to the government’s policy. This paper examines the legal issues and challenges confronting the trade union in the recognition process in Malaysia. This study adopted the qualitative approach to analyse the statutory procedures and cases relating to the issue. Interviews were conducted with the Department of Industrial Relations, Malaysia and the Department of Trade Union Affairs, Malaysia to obtain their opinion on the recognition process. It is suggested that the Malaysian government should abolish the employer’s recognition; provide a statutory definition on the managerial, executive, confidential and security positions; establish an independent administrative trade union board and ratify the Convention Concerning Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise Convention No. 87.

Keywords: Trade union, Recognition process, ILO Convention No. 87, Freedom of association.

Abstrak: Di Malaysia, Perlembagaan Persekutuan melindungi kebebasan pekerja untuk berpersatuan, terutamanya, hak pekerja untuk menubuhkan dan menyertai kesatuan sekerja. Pelbagai sekatan telah dibuat ke atas aktiviti kesatuan sekerja demi faktor keselamatan. Kesan daripada polisi kerajaan, jumlah pengiktirafan yang berjaya menunjukkan kemerosotan. Kajian ini mengkaji isu undang-undang dan cabaran yang dihadapi oleh kesatuan sekerja di dalam proses pengiktirafan kesatuan sekerja di Malaysia. Kajian ini menggunakan kaedah kualitatif untuk menganalisis prosedur-prosedur Akta dan kes-kes mahkamah yang berkaitan. Temu bual di Jabatan Perhubungan Perusahaan Malaysia dan Jabatan Kesatuan Sekerja telah dijalankan untuk mendapatkan pendapat mereka tentang proses pengiktirafan kesatuan sekerja secara keseluruhannya. Kajian ini mencadangkan supaya kerajaan Malaysia memansuhkan pengiktirafan majikan; memberikan definisi akta terhadap pengurusan, eksekutif, sulit dan keselamatan; menubuhkan badan bebas untuk menguruskan kesatuan sekerja serta mengiktiraf Konvensyen Kebebasan Persatuan dan Perlindungan Hak Menganjur No.87.

Kata Kunci: Kesatuan sekerja, Proses pengiktirafan, Konvensyen 87 & Kebebasan persatuan.

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THE INFLUENCE OF TRANSFORMATIONAL RANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP CHARACTERISTICS ON SUCCESSION PLANNING PROGRAMS IN THE MALAYSIAN PUBLIC SECTOR ECTOR
Rohana Ahmad

Abstract: Grooming successful leaders is more important now than ever for the public sector. Thus, to groom potential future leaders, the organization not only needs a succession planning program, but also commitment from the leaders. This paper analyzes the influence of leadership style characteristics on preparing future leaders through succession planning programs in Malaysia’s public sector. Four dimensions of transformational leadership styles were used which included idealized influence, inspirational motivation, individualized consideration, and intellectual stimulation. This study employed the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire and the effective Succession Planning and Management Questionnaire which were administered to 394 public servants from Malaysia’s public sector. Data was analyzed using multiple regression analysis. The results of the multiple regression analysis demonstrated that individualized influence was the main predictor of succession planning programs. Therefore, it is crucial for leaders to continue observing and modifying their leadership style(s) and behavior to be effective leaders.

Keywords: Public Sector, Leadership Characteristic Style, Succession Planning.

Abstrak: Penyediaan pemimpin yang berjaya adalah sangat penting pada masa sekarang dan juga akan datang dalam sektor awam. Oleh itu, untuk menyediakan pemimpin masa depan yang berpotensi, organisasi bukan sahaja memerlukan program perancangan penggantian, tetapi juga komitmen dari pemimpin. Sehubungan itu, kajian ini menganalisis pengaruh gaya kepimpinan kepimpinan dalam menyediakan pemimpin masa depan melalui program pelan penggantian di sektor Awam Malaysia. Empat dimensi gaya kepimpinan transformasi digunakan, termasuk pengaruh ideal, motivasi inspirasi, pengaruh individu, dan rangsangan intelektual. Kajian ini menggunakan soal selidik Pelbagai Faktor Kepemimpinan (MLQ) dan Perancangan dan Pengurusan Penggantian (SPMQ) yang berkesan yang diedarkan kepada 394 kakitangan awam dari Sektor Awam Malaysia. Data dianalisis dengan menggunakan analisis regresi berganda. Hasil dapatan analisis berganda menunjukkan bahawa pengaruh individu adalah prediktor utama dalam program perancangan penggantian. Oleh itu, sangat penting bagi semua pemimpin untuk terus melihat dan mengubah gaya dan tingkah laku kepimpinan mereka untuk menjadi pemimpin yang efektif.

Kata Kunci: Pentadbiran Awam Malaysia, Gaya kepemimpinan transformational, Pelan penggantian.

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EMPLOYEES’ PRE-DISMISSAL RIGHT TO BE HEARD: THE MALAYSIAN AND THE ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE
Junaidah Abd. Karim, Tay Pek San, Siti Zaharah Jamaluddin & Abdul Muhsin Ahmad

Abstract: It seemed to be a settled principle of law that before an employee can be dismissed from his job for misconduct, he must have a notice of the allegation against him and accorded a reasonable opportunity of being heard. However, this principle should be revisited in the light of two conflicting Federal Court’s decisions pertaining to the mandatory issue of this right especially in the private sector employment in Malaysia. The curable principle as enunciated by Dreamland Corporation (M) Sdn. Bhd. v Choong Chin Sooi & Anor [1988] 1 MLJ 111 has watered down the right of the employee to be heard as it was held in that case that the irregularity in holding a domestic enquiry is not fatal to the employer. He may justify the dismissal at the Industrial Court. Despite the existence of this principle, it should be emphasised that the right to a pre-dismissal hearing should be interpreted to be mandatory and not discretionary as there are two statutory provisions and constitutionally recognised rules of natural justice which may support this proposition. The mandatory effect of the domestic enquiry should be consistently upheld. With a view to enhance the employee’s right and to ensure harmonious employer-employee relationship, it would be the purpose of this article to comparatively examine and learn how the same right is treated and regulated under the Islamic principle of justice and its application in two Islamic countries, namely Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the UAE. Apart from narrowing down the gap in the Islamic knowledge on the administration of justice in dismissal cases, this article may also contribute in idea on how to harmonise the current employment laws and the Sharia.

Keywords: Workers, Dismissals, Misconduct, Natural justice, Islam.

Abstrak: Ianya seolah-olah telah menjadi satu prinsip undang-undang yang mantap di mana sebelum seseorang pekerja boleh dipecat daripada pekerjaannya kerana salah laku, dia mesti diberikan notis pertuduhan terhadapnya dan peluang yang munasabah untuk didengar. Walau bagaimanapun, prinsip ini perlu dikaji semula dengan mengambil kira dua keputusan Mahkamah Persekutuan yang bercanggah mengenai isu mandatori hak ini terutamanya dalam sektor pekerjaan swasta di Malaysia. Prinsip ‘pembetulan’ (curable) seperti yang dikemukakan oleh Dreamland Corporation (M) Sdn. v Choong Chin Sooi & Anor [1988] 1 MLJ 111 telah mengurangkan hak pekerja untuk didengar kerana telah diputuskan di dalam kes tersebut bahawa ketidakteraturan dalam mengadakan siasatan domestik tidak ‘membawa padah’ (fatal) kepada majikan. Dia boleh menjustifikasikan pemecatan itu di Mahkamah Perusahaan. Walaupun wujudnya prinsip ini, perlu ditekankan bahawa hak untuk didengar sebelum pemecatan harus ditafsirkan sebagai mandatori dan tidak bergantung kepada budi bicara kerana terdapat dua peruntukan statut dan peraturan keadilan semulajadi yang diiktiraf perlembagaan yang boleh menyokong prinsip ini dan kesan mandatori dalam siasatan domestik haruslah ditegakkan secara konsisten. Dengan maksud untuk meningkatkan hak pekerja dan memastikan perhubungan majikan dan pekerja yang harmoni, adalah menjadi tujuan artikel ini untuk mengkaji secara perbandingan dan mempelajari bagaimana hak yang sama diperlakukan dan diatur di bawah prinsip keadilan Islam dan aplikasinya di dua negara Islam, iaitu Kerajaan Arab Saudi dan UAE. Selain daripada merapatkan jurang pengetahuan Islam mengenai pentadbiran keadilan di dalam kes-kes pemecatan, artikel ini juga boleh menyumbangkan idea tentang bagaimana untuk mengharmonikan undang-undang pekerjaan dan Syariah atau menjadikannya patuh Syariah melalui pindaan statutori yang dicadangkan.

Kata Kunci: Pekerja, Pemecatan, Salah laku, Keadilan semulajadi, Islam.

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AN APPRAISAL OF THE CONSTITUTIONAL AND REGULATORY MECHANISMS FOR THE APPOINTMENT OF JUDICIAL OFFICERS IN NIGERIA AND ASSOCIATED CHALLENGES
Musa Adamu Aliyu, Nor Anita Abdullah & Haslinda Muhd Anuar

Abstract: The institution to settle the dispute between individuals is a court of law manned by Judges. To nominate and appoint the judges are herculean tasks which involve processes to ensure only fit and proper persons occupy Judicial Offices. This paper examined the constitutional and regulatory procedures for the appointment of Judicial Officers in Nigeria. The study identified the problems associated with the processes of the appointment of the Judicial Officers in Nigeria. The work adopted the socio-legal research method by using the qualitative approach. There is a dearth of literature in Nigeria on how the procedure for the appointment of Judicial Officers operates practically and the real problems associated with the operation of the procedural laws. To achieve the research objectives, a semi-structured interview was used. Three specialists in the Nigerian legal profession were interviewed to find out the actual issues on the ground. The study discovered that lobbying has been entrenched in the process of the appointment of Judicial Officers in Nigeria. The research further found that the powers of the Chief Justice of Nigeria to appoint the majority of members of the recommendation body threatens the independence of the Judiciary.

Abstrak: Pertelingkahan dalam masyarakat adalah sesuatu yang pasti; di mana tiada keraguan yang ia pasti akan berlaku. Untuk mencadang dan melantik hakim merupakan satu tugas yang agak berat yang mana melibatkan beberapa proses untuk memastikan hanya orang yang sesuai dan layak sahaja boleh memegang jawatan sebagai Pegawai Kehakiman. Penulisan ini akan mengkaji mengenai perlembagaan dan prosedur perundangan dalam pelantikan Pegawai Kehakiman di Nigeria. Kajian akan mengenal pasti masalah yang terlibat dengan proses pelantikan Pegawai Kehakiman di Nigeria. Kajian ini menggunakan kaedah sosio-perundangan dengan menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif. Terdapat kekurangan dari segi sorotan karya di Nigeria berkenaan dengan prosedur pelantikan Pegawai Kehakiman yang dilaksanakan secara praktikal dan masalah sebenar yang seiring dengan pelaksanaan undang-undang secara prosedural. Untuk mecapai objektif penyelidikan, temubual secara semi-struktur digunakan. Tiga orang pakar di Nigeria dalam profesion undang-undang telah ditemubual untuk mencari isu sebenar yang berlaku di lapangan. Kajian mendapati bahawa lobi telah diamalkan dalam proses pelantikan Pegawai Kehakiman di Nigeria. Pengkaji selanjutnya mendapati bahawa kuasa Ketua Hakim Nigeria untuk melantik anggota majoriti badan yang dicadangkan; memberi ancaman kepada kebebasan Badan Kehakiman.

Kata Kunci: Keperlembagaan, Mekanisma Perundangan, Cabaran Berkaitan.

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UNITED STATES’ UNLAWFUL DRONE STRIKES AND DAMAGES CAUSED TO HUMANITY: A CASE STUDY OF PAKISTAN
Muhammad Imran, Rohaida Nordin & Mohd Munzil Muhamad

Abstract: This paper contributes significantly through suggestions to overcome the problem created by the disastrous US drone strikes in Pakistan. This paper evaluates incidences of the United States’ combat drone strikes in Pakistan and the damage caused to innocent people. It seeks to determine possible violations of international laws and the extent to which these strikes diminish the sovereignty of Pakistan. After the incident of 9/11, the use of combat drones in armed conflicts among states, non-state actors, disruptive groups and organisations has increased and expanded. Combat drones are controlled by operators who depend for their primary sources of information on cameras and sensors to determine their targets. Drone strikes lack identification processes causing many innocent people to be killed or injured. Drone strikes launched in non-conflict areas also increase the concerns about illegitimate interference in a state’s territorial sovereignty and violations of international laws. It covers the following questions. What are the basic principles about the use of force? What kinds of damages are caused by US drone strikes in Pakistan that violate basic human rights principles? What are the concerns of international organisations about drone strikes in Pakistan? Summarily, it covers the United States unlawful drone strikes in Pakistan and damages caused to humanity. The paper uses doctrinal qualitative analysis to situate the research within the ethical, legal and social parameters of the related statutes of international law. The research methodology adopted is evaluative, interpretive and analytical. The paper consists of 8 segments: (1) drones and the United States armed forces, (2) some basic international law principles about the use of force, (3) possible human rights violations, (4) US drone strikes diminish the sovereignty of Pakistan, (5) demands for transparency, (6) the damages caused to humanity by the drone strikes, (7) concerns of international organisations about illegitimate drone strikes causing extra judicial killings and (8) some recommendations to regulate the use of combat drones. It demonstrates that international law does not regulate the use of combat drones in armed conflict and no considerable effort has been made to bring the use of combat drones under the rule of law. Furthermore, US drone strikes in Pakistan’s territory have been done without consensus, resulting in the violation of Pakistan’s sovereignty and the killing of innocent people.

Keywords: Drone strikes, Human rights violations, Pakistan’s territorial sovereignty, Rule of law.

Abstrak: Makalah ini menyumbang dengan ketara melalui cadangan untuk mengatasi masalah yang dicetuskan oleh serangan drone AS di Pakistan. Ia juga menilai kejadian serangan drone AS di Pakistan dan kerosakan ke atas orang yang tidak bersalah. Ia bertujuan untuk menentukan kemungkinan pelanggaran undang-undang antarabangsa dan sejauh mana serangan ini mencabul kedaulatan Pakistan. Selepas insiden 9/11, penggunaan pesawat tempur dalam konflik bersenjata di antara negara, pelaku bukan negara, kumpulan dan organisasi telah meningkat dan berkembang. Pesawat tempur ini dikawal oleh pengendali yang bergantung pada kamera dan sensor sebagai sumber maklumat utama untuk menentukan sasaran mereka. Serangan drone mempunyai kelemahan dalam proses pengenalan yang mengakibatkan ramai orang tidak bersalah terbunuh atau cedera. Serangan drone yang dilancarkan di kawasan bukan konflik juga meningkatkan kebimbangan mengenai gangguan tidak sah dalam kedaulatan wilayah negara dan pencabulan undang-undang antarabangsa. Makalah ini merangkumi soalan-soalan berikut: Apakah asas-asas mengenai penggunaan kekerasan? Apa jenis kerosakan yang disebabkan oleh serangan drone AS di Pakistan yang melanggar prinsip asas hak asasi manusia? Apakah kebimbangan organisasi antarabangsa mengenai serangan di Pakistan? Ringkasnya, ia mengenai serangan drone AS yang menyalahi undang-undang di Pakistan dan kerosakan ke atas manusia. Makalah ini menggunakan analisis kualitatif dalam aspek etika, perundangan dan sosial yang berkaitan dengan undang-undang antarabangsa. Metodologi penyelidikan yang dipakai adalah evaluatif, interpretatif dan analitikal. Makalah ini terbahagi kepada 8 bahagian: (1) drone dan angkatan bersenjata AS; (2) prinsip asas undang-undang antarabangsa tentang penggunaan kekerasan; (3) kemungkinan pelanggaran hak asasi manusia; (4) serangan drone AS dan pencabulan kedaulatan Pakistan; (5) tuntutan terhadap ketelusan; (6) kajian terhadap kerosakan yang disebabkan oleh serangan drone; (7) keprihatinan organisasi antarabangsa terhadap serangan drone tidak sah yang menyebabkan pembunuhan di luar kehakiman; dan (8) mengemukakan beberapa cadangan untuk mengawal penggunaan pesawat tempur. Makalah ini membuktikan bahawa undang-undang antarabangsa tidak dapat mengawal penggunaan pesawat tempur dalam konflik bersenjata dan tidak banyak usaha yang dibuat untuk membawa penggunaan pesawat tempur ini di bawah kedaulatan undang-undang. Tambahan pula, serangan drone AS di wilayah Pakistan telah dilakukan tanpa persetujuan, mengakibatkan pencabulan kedaulatan Pakistan dan pembunuhan orang yang tidak bersalah.

Kata Kunci: Serangan, Pelanggaran hak asasi manusia, Kedaulatan wilayah Pakistan, Peraturan undang-undang

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IMPLEMENTATION OF NON-DISCRIMINATION IN RESPECT TO DETERMINE THE APPROPRIATE POLICY FOR DEALING WITH INTERNATIONAL TRADE
Dijan Widijowati

Abstract: International trade is an activity involving the exchange of goods and services across national borders. International trade is strongly influenced by the harmonization of political, legal, social and cultural rights owned by respective countries. A number of principles have been formulated and enforced to prevent and resolve disputes arising from international trade, one of which is the principle of non- discrimination. In practice the existence of the principle of non-discrimination often cannot be implemented, because it runs contrary to the policies of each country which is to protect its own interests. Based on the background of the problem that has been described, three subject matters were identified: 1. How can the principle of non-discrimination be applied in international trade? 2. How can appropriate legal policies in dealing with the negative impact of international trade be determined? 3. How can expected disputes on international trade be resolved? The method used in this study was the normative juridical approach to literature. Studies have properties that descriptive analytical assessment phase which focuses on the assessment of secondary data. Data was collected by means of a literature study to support the object of assessment. The results of the assessment conducted revealed that the principle of non-discrimination in international trade cannot be directly applied. Although there is a variety of policies whether committed by the government or society which indirectly consider the principle of non-discrimination internationally, the principle of non-discrimination can only be applied if it can support and protect the interests of concerned parties.

Abstrak: Perdagangan antarabangsa adalah aktiviti penjualan atau pertukaran barang / jasa di seluruh sempadan negara. Perdagangan antarabangsa sangat dipengaruhi oleh harmoni hak-hak politik, undang-undang, sosial dan budaya yang dimiliki oleh negara masing-masing. Beberapa prinsip telah diformulasikan dan dikuatkuasakan untuk mencegah dan menyelesaikan pertikaian yang timbul daripada perdagangan antarabangsa, salah satunya adalah prinsip tidak diskriminasi. Kewujudan prinsip tidak diskriminasi dalam amalan sering tidak dapat dilaksanakan, kerana ia selalu bertentangan dengan dasar setiap negara untuk melindungi kepentingannya.

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ENSURING THE WELL-BEING OF THE ELDERLY: REVISITING THE ROLE AND ADEQUACY OF SOCIAL PROTECTION SCHEMES IN MALAYSIA AND THE PHILIPPINES
Mohammad Abu Taher, Siti Zaharah Jamaluddin, Jal Zabdi Mohd. Yusoff, Zulazhar Tahir & Sridevi Thambapillay

Abstract: Globally, social protection schemes are considered as effective tools in ensuring the well-being of the poor, disempowered and otherwise marginalised people of society. It is applicable in cases of elderly people who are comparatively vulnerable due to their old age, and at times poverty or the lack of financial security.The proportion of elderly people in poverty is higher than that in the working age population, indicating the increasing likelihood of people falling into poverty as they leave or retire from the workforce. Therefore, one way of addressing poverty among the elderly is through social protection mechanisms. Malaysia and the Philippines are two Southeast Asian countries on their way to becoming ageing nations. As such, both these countries have already adopted numerous social protection schemes to ensure the well-being of the marginalised segments of society, including the elderly. Thus, based on existing literature, this paper is an attempt to revisit and re-examine the role and adequacy of existing social protection schemes available in Malaysia and the Philippines.

Keywords: Employees Provident fund, Pension scheme, Social protection, Well-being of Elderly People

Abstrak: Pada peringkat global, skim perlindungan sosial dianggap sebagai satu mekanisme yang berkenaan untuk memastikan kesejahteraan mereka yang miskin, tidak berdaya dan yang mereka yang terpinggir. Ini termasuklah kes yang melibatkan warga tua yang juga terdedah kepada bahaya kerana faktor usia, kemiskinan ataupun kekangan dalam bentuk jaminan kewangan. Kadar kemiskinan yang melibatkan warga tua adalah lebih tinggi daripada mereka yang dalam kumpulan yang sedang bekerja. Ini menunjukkan peningkatan kebarangkalian seseorang itu termasuk ke dalam kategori miskin apabila mereka berhenti dari bekerja atau bersara. Oleh itu, salah satu cara untuk menangani isu kemiskinan di kalangan warga tua adalah menerusi mekanisme pelindungan sosial. Malaysia dan Filipina merupakan dua buah negara di Asia Tenggara yang sedang menuju kearah Negara Tua. Oleh itu, kedua-dua negara telah melaksanakan beberapa skim perlindungan sosial untuk memastikan kesejahteraan kumpulan yang terpinggir dalam masyarakat termasuklah warga tua. Sehubungan dengan itu, berdasarkan literatur sedia ada, kertas penyelidikan ini akan melihat dan meneliti semula peranan dan kecukupan skim perlindungan sosial yang sedia ada di Malaysia dan Filipina.

Kata Kunci: Kumpulan Wang Simpanan Pekerja, Skim Pencen, Perlindungan Sosial, Kesejahteraan Warga Emas

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THE LEGAL ASPECT OF INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS PRACTICE IN BANGLADESH
Tasnuva Mahbub Chowdhury, Mohammed Rahel

Abstract: The role of labour and industrial laws is of paramount importance when the economy of a country depends largely on its industrial sector. In addition, the necessary infrastructure for investments in natural resources is also important. It is clear that if these essential elements are not available then the growth of the industrial sector is hardly feasible. Besides all these, the proper management of labour is essential for the growth of the industrial sector including managing labour issues. Thus timely disposal of labour disputes is also important. However, in most cases labour law disputes are not solved within a short period of time causing remedies which are essential for these disputes to be delayed. Labour laws are important from the Bangladesh perspective as it is crucial for the industrial development of the country. Labour is an important part of an industry and as such an industry without labour would be inconceivable. Although labour rights are crucial in Bangladesh, employees are ignorant about their rights as they do not have adequate education and knowledge about labour laws. This is a huge problem. This paper aims to narrow the gap between existing laws and the real scenario relating to industrial practices in Bangladesh.

Keywords: Industrial relations, Disputes, Employers, Employees, Labour.

Abstrak: Peranan undang-undang buruh dan perindustrian sangat penting. Kita tahu bahawa keadaan ekonomi sesebuah negara sangat bergantung kepada sektor industri. Tambahan lagi, infrastruktur untuk pelaburan terhadap sumber asli sangat pernting kerana tanpanya, perkembangan sektor industri adalah mustahil. Selain itu, isu-isu pekerja juga memainkan peranan penting. Pengurusan buruh yang betul sangat penting dalam memperkembangkan sektor industri. Pengurusan yang teratur dalam pertikaian buruh juga penting. Dapat dilihat bahawa kes-kes yang melibatkan pertikaian buruh tidak diselesaikan dalam waktu yang singkat. Maka, undang-undang buruh adalah penting dalam perkembangan sektor industri di Bangladesh kerana pekerja-pekerja merupakan tulang belakang bagi pembangunan industri. Sesebuah industri tidak mungkin membangun tanpa pekerja-pekerja. Hak-hak pekerja adalah sangat penting, namun di Bangladesh, pekerja-pekerja tidak tahu ataupun mengendahkan hak-hak mereka. Mereka tidak tahu berkenaan undang-undang buruh kerana kurang pendidikan. Kertas kerja ini bertujuan untuk meningkatkan jurang antara undang-undang sedia ada dengan kejadian sebenar yang berkaitan dengan amalan perindustrian di Bangladesh.

Kata Kunci: Hubungan industri, Pertikaian, Majikan-majikan, Pekerja-pekerja, Buruh.

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RIGHT OF ONLINE INFORMATIONAL PRIVACY OF CHILDREN IN MALAYSIA: A STATUTORY PERSPECTIVE
Zainal Amin Ayub & Zuryati Mohamed Yusoff

Abstract: The advantage of digital era with unlimited access to the Internet is enjoyed by most people globally including the young and children. However, policy-makers concern with the advancement of Internet and propagate the idea of shielding and segregating the children from the harm that may cause from access to the Internet, including breach of online privacy of the children. Children are not sensitive with their online privacy or do not know how to protect their online privacy. Hence, some countries have enacted specific legislation to protect the privacy of the children such as the Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA) in the United States of America or introduced self-regulatory initiatives on online child privacy like in the European Union. At the international level, the Convention on the Rights of the Child was introduced in 1989 by the United Nation to protect the children. In Malaysia, the government introduces the Child Act 2001 and the Sexual Offences against Children Act 2017 to protect the children. However, how far these two Acts protect the online privacy of the children in Malaysia? Thus, the article seeks to examine the legal protection of children online informational privacy in Malaysia. The article adopts doctrinal research methodology which is mainly library research approach. The article finds that the current regimes of laws do not adequately protect the online privacy of the children in Malaysia. It is suggested that amendment or enactment of the laws to that effect be made.

Keywords: Child, Online informational privacy, Protection, Personal data.

Abstrak: Kelebihan era digital dengan akses Internet tanpa had dapat dinikmati oleh semua orang di dunia termasuklah golongan muda dan kanak-kanak. Walau bagaimanapun, pembuat polisi peka terhadap kemajuan Internet dan menyebarkan idea untuk melindungi dan menghindarkan kanak-kanak daripada bahaya yang mungkin berlaku akibat daripada akses kepada Internet, termasuklah pelanggaran privasi dalam talian bagi kanak-kanak. Kanak-kanak tidak sensitif dengan privasi dalam talian mereka atau tidak tahu bagaimana untuk melindungi privasi tersebut.. Oleh sebab itu, beberapa negara telah menggubal undang-undang khusus untuk melindungi privasi kanak-kanak seperti Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA) di Amerika Syarikat atau memperkenalkan inisiatif-inisiatif pengawalseliaan sendiri bagi privasi dalam talian kanak-kanak seperti di Kesatuan Eropah. Di peringkat antarabangsa pula, Konvensyen Mengenai Hak Kanak-kanak telah diperkenalkan pada tahun 1989 oleh Bangsa-bangsa Bersatu untuk melindungi kanak-kanak. Di Malaysia, kerajaan memperkenalkan Akta Kanak-kanak 2001 dan Akta Kesalahan-kesalahan Seksual Terhadap Kanak-kanak 2017 untuk melindungi kanak-kanak. Walau bagaimanapun, sejauh manakah kedua-dua Akta ini melindungi privasi dalam talian kanak-kanak di Malaysia? Oleh itu, artikel ini membuat penelitian berhubung perlindungan undang-undang terhadap privasi maklumat dalam talian kanak-kanak di Malaysia. Artikel ini mengguna pakai metodologi penyelidikan doktrinal melalui pendekatan penyelidikan perpustakaan. Aktikel ini mendapati bahawa undang-undang sedia ada tidak sepenuhnya melindungi privasi dalam talian kanak-kanak di Malaysia. Adalah dicadangkan bahawa pindaan atau penggubalan undang-undang sedemikian dilaksanakan.

Kata Kunci: Kanak-kanak, Privasi maklumat dalam talian, Perlindungan, Data peribadi.

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UUM Journal of Legal Studies
College of Law, Government and International Studies
06010 UUM Sintok, Kedah Darul Aman, Malaysia.

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