Sunday, September 20, 2020
Text Size

UUM Journal of Legal Studies (UUMJLS) Forthcoming

These articles have been peer-reviewed and accepted for publication in UUM JLS, but are pending final changes, are not yet published and may not appear here in their final order of publication until they are assigned to issues. Additionally, titles, authors, abstracts and keywords may change before publication.

1Rokiah Kadir*, 2Raihanah Abdullah3Safiek Mokhlis
1Faculty of Business, Economics and Social Development, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 2Academy of Islamic Studies, Universiti of Malaya, 3Faculty of Business, Economics and Social Development, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu

*Corresponding author:



Custody decisions are tailored to the circumstances of each case based on related principles with protection of child welfare as courts’ paramount consideration. This paper seeks to understand custody issue from quantitative viewpoint through a conceptual model and examines how child custody principles have influenced loss decisions for mothers. The methodology used was content analysis and Chi-Square correlation, with usable data provided by 47 cases decided in Malaysia between 1987 and 2017 based on Act 303. Coding instrument and conceptual framework were developed with items covering presumption of maternal custody, custodian qualification and loss of rights, child’s and mother’s wishes. The findings revealed that mothers were less likely to lose custody cases and when they did their defeats were strongly influenced by factors relating to children’s preference and status quo arrangement. The results contribute to an understanding of how mothers can lose custody of their children and clarify whether some of the independent variables are used more regularly and are more predictive of the loss decisions than the others.

Keywords: Child custody, Act 303, child preference, custodian qualification, loss of rights.

1Shahrina Anis Samsudin, Nazura Abdul Manap, Safinaz Mohd. Hussein
Fakulti Undang-Undang, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
1Corresponding author:



Corak tradisional Orang Iban yang semakin mendapat perhatian telah ditiru, dieksploitasi, digunakan tanpa kebenaran dan digunakan dalam keadaan yang menghina Orang Iban. Artikel ini bertujuan untuk memberikan gambaran tentang undang-undang yang sesuai bagi melindungi pengungkapan kebudayaan tradisional (PKT), terutamanya corak tradisional. Hal ini kerana terdapat pelbagai jenis undang-undang yang digunakan di seluruh dunia dalam melindungi PKT dan tiada instrumen undang-undang antarabangsa yang khusus diperuntukkan untuk melindungi PKT. Selain daripada itu, objektif artikel ini juga bertujuan untuk mencadangkan undang-undang yang sesuai digunakan di Malaysia untuk melindungi corak tradisional Orang Iban daripada perspektif PKT. Kajian perpustakaan dilakukan berdasarkan sumber primer dan sekunder seperti buku, kertas-kertas kajian dan dokumen perundangan melalui pangkalan data elektronik dan carian Internet menggunakan kata kunci seperti perlindungan warisan budaya, perlindungan pengungkapan kebudayaan tradisional, warisan Orang Asal dan perlindungan corak Orang Asal. Dapatan kajian diasingkan dan dibincangkan mengikut jenis undang-undang yang dicadangkan iaitu undang-undang warisan budaya, undang-undang harta intelek, gabungan undang-undang, undang-undang adat dan undang-undang sui generis. Hasil kajian menunjukkan tiada satu jenis undang-undang yang dipersetujui di peringkat antarabangsa untuk melindungi PKT. Kajian ini mencadangkan supaya undang-undang warisan budaya dan harta intelek sedia ada dipinda dan digunakan secara bersama-sama untuk memberikan perlindungan yang pantas untuk beberapa aspek keperluan Orang Iban terhadap corak tradisional mereka. Namun begitu, satu kerangka perundangan baru yang khusus (sui generis) harus digubal untuk memberikan perlindungan yang menyeluruh dan untuk jangka masa yang panjang bagi corak tradisional Orang Iban.

Kata kunci: Corak, Harta Intelek, Perlindungan, Pengungkapan Kebudayaan Tradisional (PKT), Warisan Budaya.



Iban’s traditional designs that are gaining attention have been copied, exploited, and used without any authorisation or in derogatory manners. This article intends to provide an overview on the laws suitable to be used in protecting traditional cultural expressions (TCEs), especially traditional designs. This is due to the variety of laws used around the world in protecting TCEs and the absence of international legal instruments that provide protection to the TCEs specifically. Besides, the objective of this article is also to suggest suitable laws to be used in Malaysia to protect the Iban’s traditional designs from the TCEs perspective. Literature review method is applied based on primary and secondary sources from books, research papers and legal documents which was implemented by means of electronic database and internet search using key terms such as protection of cultural heritage, protection of traditional cultural expressions, indigenous heritage and protection of indigenous designs. The results were then separated and discussed according to the type of laws suggested, namely, cultural heritage law, intellectual property law and combination of different laws, customary law, and sui generis law. The finding showed that there was no single type of law that had been agreed upon at the international level to be used in protecting TCEs. This writing suggested that the existing cultural heritage and intellectual property law be amended and used together to provide immediate protection for some aspects of the Iban’s traditional design. However, a new and specific legal framework (sui generis) needs to be enacted in order to provide a comprehensive protection to the Iban’s traditional design in the long term.

Keywords: Intellectual Property, Pattern, Protection, Traditional cultural expressions (TCEs), Cultural Heritage.


1Rushmila Bintay Rafique & A. Vijayalakshmi Venugopal
Faculty of Business & Law, Taylor’s University, Malaysia
1Corresponding author:



This article attempts to analyse the issue of fraud in letters of credit (LC) transactions, also known as documentary credits. There are numerous reported cases of fraud in LC transactions, which remain a continuing risk. The UCP 600 is a popular standard of practice for banks, which confirms that banks must honour payment to the seller upon full compliance with the documentary credit requirements. Such payments have been made despite being presented with falsified documents or substandard goods being delivered. It might not be realistic to expect that the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) can create global standards relating documentary credits, which cover the practicalities of the existing system and relevant legalities applicable to the letter of credit system in international trading. Each party involved may have a responsibility to take some preventive measures to mitigate the risk of fraud. The doctrinal method is used to conduct this study because it involves an in-depth analysis of the gap within the Malaysian system and the strategies that maybe be adopted to overcome the risks associated with LC fraud. Findings reveal that LC documents can be easily falsified, and the occurrence of LC fraud is not uncommon in Malaysia. However, given the lack of literature it has not been highlighted in the past couple of years. The primary focus of this article is to suggest preventive measures that the respective parties could take to protect themselves from fraudulent dealings involving LCs.

Keywords: Letters of Credit (LC); Fraud; UCP 600; Malaysia; Preventive Measures.

Analisis Literatur tentang Tatacara Perbicaraan Jenayah Syariah bagi Orang Kurang Upaya di Mahkamah Syariah

1Muhamad Helmi Muhamad Khair, 2Haswira Nor Mohamad Hashim & 3Maria Anagnostopoulou
1&2Faculty of Law, UiTM Shah Alam
3The British Museum, London United Kingdom
1Corresponding author:



Pada masa kini, tidak diketahui sejauh mana mahkamah Syariah di Malaysia mengendalikan kes-kes jenayah Syariah yang membabitkan Orang Kurang Upaya (OKU). Akta dan Enakmen Tatacara Jenayah Syariah Negeri-negeri tidak memperincikan tatacara perbicaraan yang tertentu bagi kes-kes jenayah Syariah membabitkan OKU. Ketiadaan satu tatacara perbicaraan khusus menimbulkan kebimbangan tentang penjagaan hak-hak OKU semasa perbicaraan kes-kes jenayah Syariah. Sehubungan dengan itu, kajian ini dijalankan adalah untuk menganalisis literatur mengenai tatacara perbicaraan kes jenayah Syariah bagi OKU di Mahkamah Syariah. Kajian kualitatif ini menggunakan kaedah analisis dokumen dan temu bual pakar iaitu Hakim Mahkamah Syariah dan Pegawai Penyelidik mahkamah Syariah. Analisis literatur sangat penting untuk mendapatkan gambaran menyeluruh mengenai perkembangan Undang-undang Tatacara Jenayah Syariah dan isu-isu dasar yang berlaku antara golongan OKU dan mahkamah Syariah. Kajian ini juga penting kerana ianya selari dengan hasrat kerajaan melalui Pelan Tindakan OKU 2016-2022 dalam menggalakkan penyelidikan dan pembangunan OKU untuk usaha penambahbaikan dalam segenap aspek termasuk sistem perundangan Syariah. Dapatan kajian mendapati golongan OKU menghadapi halangan berbentuk fizikal, sosial dan budaya ketika proses perbicaraan. Sehubungna dengan itu, wujud keperluan untuk mengkaji perundangan Syariah semasa di Malaysia bagi menjunjung keadilan dan pemeliharaan hak-hak mereka. Diharapkan kajian ini menjadi panduan dan rujukan pihak berautoriti apabila mengkaji tatacara perbicaraan OKU dan perundangan pada masa hadapan.

Kata kunci: Mahkamah Syariah, Orang Kelainan Upaya, Tatacara Perbicaraan, Tatacara Jenayah Syariah.



Details on how the Syariah Court in Malaysia handle Syariah criminal cases involving Persons With Disabilities (PWD) are very limited. Present Federal Acts and State Enactments on Syariah Criminal Procedure do not offer specific information regarding trial procedures for PWD. The lack of specific trial procedures raises questions about the protection of rights of PWD during Syariah criminal case trials. Therefore, the objective of this study is to analyse literatures on Syariah criminal trial procedures for PWD in Syariah Court. Document analysis and interviews of subject matter experts are methods used for this qualitative study. Literature analysis is important as to obtain an overall understanding about the developments on Syariah Criminal Procedure and main issues occuring between PWD and Syariah court. This study also corresponds with the national Action Plan for PWD 2016-2022 in promoting research and developments for PWD especially for improvements of Islamic Law. The results of this study indicated that PWD encounter physical, social and cultural barriers during trial and there is need for revising current Syariah laws in Malaysia to uphold justice and protect their right of fair trial. It is hoped that this study can be used as reference by revelant authorities in conducting more studies on trial procedures for PWD..

Keywords: Persons with Disabilities, Syariah Criminal Procedure, Syariah court, Trial procedures.


1Rahmanisa Purnamasari Faujura, Elisatris Gultom & Sudjana
Faculty of Law, University of Padjadjaran Bandung, Indonesia
1Corresponding author:



It is a common knowledge that technology development shall be in line with the development of a nation. This fact is raising the need of developing countries as Indonesia to maximize potential in the field of technology. However, it is not easy as it sounds, there are many obstacles for a country to develop its potential in technology, notably for the expert in the relevant country to master the necessary skills. Due to this limitation, many countries are beginning to fill-in the gap by registering license of foreign patent. It is expected that the use of foreign patent will replace the higher cost and longer time needed in developing local technology in the developing countries. Unfortunately, the use of foreign patent license does not itself automatically enhance one’s ability to master the necessary skills. Many cases where developing countries were deceived by the ‘grant-back’ clause attached to the foreign patent license. The licensee’s position is consequently considered has lower than of the licensor, which in its turn may rise monopoly practice and unfair business competition. This study is conducted with the purpose to formulate an effective technology transfer through the licensing of foreign patent that can refrain from the repetition of monopoly practice and unfair business competition, according to the TRIPs signed by WTO and the positive law in Indonesia. This study is using juridical-normative approach as the methodology of research, it also use analytical approach through the Law Number 13 of 2016 concerning Patent; Law Number 5 of 1999 concerning Prohibition of the Monopoly Practice and Unfair Business Competition as well as the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights signed by the World Trade Organization, with respect to the license agreement of the foreign patent. Based on the issue as established previously in this journal, the expected outcome of increased information dissemination towards countries using patent licensing agreement in technology and information development related to any matter in intellectual property specifically in licensing agreement, which has higher possibility for Monopolistic Practices and Unfair Business Competition. Therefore, shows that in principle in order to prevent the licensing of foreign patent to lead onto the monopoly practice and unfair business competition, a country must establish a controlling entity to supervise the execution of the foreign patent and at the same time, enacting harmonious rules and regulations with such supervision.

Keywords: Technology transfer, license of foreign patent, monopoly practice and unfair business competition.

UUM Journal of Legal Studies
College of Law, Government and International Studies
06010 UUM Sintok, Kedah Darul Aman, Malaysia.

Creative Commons License

All articles published in UUM Journal of Legal Studies (UUM JLS) are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License