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UUM Journal of Legal Studies (UUMJLS) Forthcoming Vol. 12(2), July 2021

These articles have been peer-reviewed and accepted for publication in UUM JLS, but are pending final changes, are not yet published and may not appear here in their final order of publication until they are assigned to issues. Additionally, titles, authors, abstracts and keywords may change before publication.

1Siti Suraya Abd Razak & 2Nik Ahmad Kamal Nik Mahmod
1Azman Hashim International Business School, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Malaysia
2Ahmad Ibrahim Kulliyah of Laws, Universiti Islam Antarabangsa Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
1Corresponding author:  
The notion of social justice in Islam requires fairness in allocating and distributing goods to all members and groups in society. In the context of employment, an employer is required to treat all workers equally and pay their dues suitable with their skills and capabilities. A trade union is an important component under the tripartite system of industrial relations that is imperative in representing workers to demand or improve their working conditions. Although trade union is legally recognised in Malaysia, various state-imposed restrictions have curtailed the trade union actions in representing the workers for better and equal treatment at the workplace. This paper examined whether the trade union legal framework in Malaysia is currently in concord with the Islamic principle of social justice. The objectives of this research are two-fold: first, to examine the principle of social justice in Islam and second, to integrate the principle of social justice in Islam in the Malaysian trade union legal framework. In order to fulfil the study’s objective, the research employed the literature research method and referred to Islamic texts (the Quran and hadith). The study discovered that the restrictive legal system of trade unions in Malaysia contradicts the concept of social justice as promoted by Islamic principles. Therefore, the legal framework on trade unions in Malaysia should be amended to guarantee the exercise of full rights of trade unions in the state and ensure consistency with the Shari’ah.
Keywords: Trade unionism, Islamic law, industrial relations, social justice, Shari’ah.

Ali Hadi Al-Obeidi
Al Ain University, College of Law, Private Law Department, Abu Dhabi, UAE
1Corresponding author:
This paper presents an assessment of the criteria for setting the maximum amount of compensation given to a property developer when a buyer breaches their contractual obligations according to the law of the Interim Real Property Register in the Emirate of Dubai. The register gives the developer the power to deduct a certain percentage of the amount paid to them by the buyer, without the need to resort to justice or arbitration. Such a power is one of certain exceptional powers granted to the developer under this law to encourage property investment in Dubai. This research aims to define the type of compensation that the property developer deserves, as well as present the criteria for the maximum amount of compensation and an evaluation of them. This was achieved by analyzing Article 11 of the mentioned law for accuracy and fairness on this issue, and its success in balancing the conflicting interests of both parties. One key result found was that the legislator had not succeeded in balancing the two parties of the off-plan sale. It is strongly recommended that the legislator abolish the three criteria on the maximum amount of compensation and adopt alternative criteria.
Keywords: Compensation, property developer, off-plan sale, Dubai.

Muhammad Nur Haniff Mohd Noor, 1Rokiah Kadir & Suriyani Muhamad
1Faculty of Business, Economics and Social Development Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Malaysia
1Corresponding author:
The purpose of this paper is to determine if the law currently in force is ineffective and thus contributes to the occurrence of forest offences. The paper analyses the punishments under the National Forestry Act 1984 based on the perceptions of related stakeholders on the effectiveness of those punishments in addressing illegal logging and other forest offences. A questionnaire was utilized to obtain responses from 240 purposively selected stakeholders. The collected data were analysed in the context of measures of central tendency to identify the extent to which the respondents agreed with the stated items. The results demonstrate that the law was generally perceived to be acceptable. The findings also identified compensation payment based on the value of tree or wood as the most significant item, while longer imprisonment term was rated as the least significant item.
Keywords: Illegal logging, forest offences, fine, imprisonment, compound.

1Ibtisam @ Ilyana Ilias, 2Rusni Hassan, 3Salina Kassim & 4Elistina Abu Bakar
1Faculty of Law, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia
2&3Institute of Islamic Banking and Finance, International Islamic University, Malaysia
4Faculty of Human Ecology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia
1Corresponding author:
This study examines the redress mechanisms accessible to aggrieved consumers dealing with various consumer credit providers in Malaysia. The existing legal and institutional framework characterised by the piecemeal approach has led different groups of consumers to varying levels of access, which can be superior or inferior to one another. The study employs a doctrinal legal research methodology in analysing the two alternative dispute resolution bodies, namely, the Ombudsman for Financial Services, and the Tribunal for Consumer Claims. Primary sources of law, namely, the Consumer Protection Act 1999, the Financial Services Act 2013, the Financial Services (Financial Ombudsman Scheme) Regulation 2014, the Hire-Purchase Act 1967, the Moneylenders Act 1951, and the Pawnbrokers Act 1972, are meticulously analysed along with secondary sources of law that principally comprise journal articles. The study reveals disparities in terms of access to cheap and simple redress mechanisms by various categories of consumers who are aggrieved by the actions of credit providers. The position of bank consumers and those entering into credit sale is accounted for, as there are particular ADR bodies established under relevant legislations to hear their respective disputes. On the contrary, the position of those who wish to lodge claims against moneylenders, pawnbrokers or credit companies offering hire-purchase is problematic. Several recommendations are proposed to resolve this opacity inter alia by referring to the approach adopted by South Africa. This study is significant in ensuring fair access to inexpensive and hassle-free dispute resolutions for all financial consumers, irrespective of the nature of their consumer credit transactions.
Keywords: Redress mechanism, consumer credit, alternative dispute resolution, consumer protection.

Khairil Azmin Mokhtar
Ahmad Ibrahim Kulliyyah of Laws, International Islamic University Malaysia
Corresponding author:
Control of tobacco faces a huge obstacle because it is where important health issue has to face the powerful opposition from the wealth influence of tobacco industries (TI). Death and disease caused by tobacco use now constitute a pandemic. Unfortunately, the power and impact of tobacco’s nature and commerce of its addiction make tobacco control a contentious issue of public health. The task of curbing the tobacco pandemic becomes more challenging with the use of human rights arguments and constitutional issues by smokers and the TI. This is a qualitative research on medical and legal aspects of tobacco use and smoking. This paper examines the origin of tobacco and its use as well as the development of scientific and medical reports relating to the effect of tobacco use particularly smoking. It also demonstrates how national and global policies relating to tobacco were formulated based on the scientific findings and medical reports by giving priority to public health. This is also a legal research relating to international legal framework of tobacco control, namely the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC), and the legal regulations relating to tobacco control in Malaysia as well as its enforcement strategies. The legal challenge mounted against the law and policy restricting tobacco use is also examined. The study shows the implementation of WHO FCTC is crucial in fighting tobacco pandemic. The convention also upheld the right of the people to breathe fresh and clean air by prohibiting environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in public spaces. Thus, the right must be respected by smokers and must not be infringed upon. The decision of the court is lauded because the law and policy relating to tobacco control are in line with rights guaranteed by the Federal Constitution and in tandem with WHO FCTC of which Malaysia is a party.
Keywords: Tobacco control, Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, public health.

1Nurul Jannah Mustafa Khan, 2Farahdilah Ghazali & 3Siti Fazilah Abdul Shukor
1Faculty of Law, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
2Faculty of Fisheries and Food Science, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Malaysia
3Faculty of Business and Finance, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Malaysia
1Corresponding author:
Immunisation protection includes vaccination programme that is very crucial to prevent the spread of disease among children or those with low immune systems. However, the cases of contagious diseases such as measles have increased dramatically in many countries around the world, including Malaysia. This may be partly due to the rise of certain groups or movements that do not believe in the efficacy of the vaccines. This paper outlined the scenario and existing framework on the administration of the vaccines in Malaysia, with respect to the practices of some countries namely the United State, Italy and Singapore on the implementation of the immunisation programme to its community. Subsequently, this paper highlighted the issues on compulsory vaccination on whether it violated the fundamental liberties incorporated in the Federal Constitution. The researchers adopted a doctrinal approach, whereby materials were compiled from the Malaysian and other jurisdictions’ legislations, case laws, journal articles, and databases. This paper is intended for policymakers as well as the public to understand the possibility for implementing compulsory vaccinations from a legal perspective.
Keywords: Immunisation programme, compulsory vaccine, fundamental human rights, herd immunity.

1Nur Yuhanis Ismon, Zuraidah Ali & Mohsin Hingun
Ahmad Ibrahim Kuliyyah of Law International Islamic University of Malaysia, Gombak, Malaysia
1Corresponding author:
Waqf is a form of voluntary charity and its purposes are recognized by Islamic law as religious, pious or charitable. Charitable trust is a public trust where the settlor may aim to create certain purposes. Both waqf and charitable trust share the same objective which is for the benefit of the community at large. The objective of this article is to reveal how the requirements of “public benefit” in charitable trust are applicable to waqf cases. In determining the validity of a charitable trust, the requirement of “public benefit” is essential particularly under the last three charitable purposes namely advancement of education, advancement of religion and other purposes beneficial to the community. Besides that, the “personal nexus” test is also applied in the case of charitable trust to ensure no personal linkage between the founder and the beneficiaries. These two elements are necessary to establish a valid charitable trust; the English court will first filter out such a case to ensure that there is no infringement of other people’s rights and exploitation of the charitable trust’s privilege. “Public benefit” requirement and “personal test” are also applicable in cases relating to waqf cases. In waqf, the Islamic law prescribes two categories which are “Waqf Khairi” (Public waqf) and “Waqf Ahli” (Family waqf). However, family waqf is treated as “non-charitable under the influence of English law of trust” because it infringes the rule against perpetuities. The methodology used in this article is doctrinal legal research focusing on the legal principle as well as the cases of “public benefit” requirement, the “personal nexus” test and the rule against perpetuities in charitable trust and waqf. This article found that the requirement of public benefit is also applicable in public waqf, but not for family waqf. Despite that, family waqf should be maintained as it is a great channel for wealth distribution and succession planning.
Keywords: Public benefit, charitable trust, waqf, purpose of charity.

1Thim Wai Chen, 2Ruzita Azmi & 3Rohana Abdul Rahman
1,2&3School of Law, College of Law, Government and International Studies, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Kedah, Malaysia
1Advocate & Solicitor, High Court of Malaya, Malaysia
1Corresponding author:



This paper aims to provide an examination of the theories that underpin corporate insolvency as developed in the US and the UK, and apply that to the two novel corporate rescue mechanisms; the corporate voluntary arrangement and judicial management, which are embedded in the Companies Act 2016 (CA 2016) of Malaysia. This paper adopted a doctrinal and theoretical approach to law. The tension in the corporate rescue mechanisms in the CA 2016 between creditors and other stakeholders of a company affected the objectives on corporate insolvency in Malaysia. This paper identified the theories that are reflected in the corporate rescue mechanisms in the CA 2016 – a gap within the provisions which was left out in the process that ranged from consultancy and leading up to the drafting of the CA 2016. In addition, the objectives of introducing the corporate rescue mechanisms were identified. These findings may pave the way to reform the corporate rescue law in order to enhance its conformity with the objectives of corporate rescue in Malaysia. This in turn would facilitate the recovery of financially distressed companies and the minimisation of the loss of employment.

Keywords: Companies Act 2016, comparative theories, corporate rescue mechanisms, corporate rescue objectives.

1Azrol Abdullah & 2Nazura Abdul Manap
1&2Faculty of Law, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia
1Corresponding author:
The advancement of artificial intelligence (AI) technology has become the fundamental catalyst in the research and development of autonomous vehicle (AV). AVs equipped with AI are expected to perform better than humans and forecasted to reduce the number of road accidents. AV will improve humans’ quality of life, such as creating more mobility for the elderly and disabled, increasing productivity, and creating an environmentally friendly system. Despite AV’s promising abilities, reports indicate that AV can go phut, causing road fatalities to the AV user and other road users. The autonomous nature of AV exacerbates the difficulty in determining who is at fault. This article aims to examine the ability of the existing legal framework to identify the person at fault so as to determine the tortious liability in road accidents involving AV. This article demonstrated that the existing legal scheme is insufficient to determine tortious liability in road accidents involving AV. This article explored the possibility of shouldering the liability on the manufacturer, the user, and even on the AV itself. This article also investigated alternative approaches that could be adopted to resolve issues on the distribution of tortious liability in road accidents involving AV. The outcome of this article could contribute to issues relating to the liability of AI.
Keywords: artificial intelligence, autonomous vehicle, liability, negligence, tort.

1Mohd Zakhiri Md. Nor, 2Asmadi Mohamed Naim, 3Nurul Aini Muhamed, 4Azrul Azlan Iskandar Mirza, 5Abdul Rahman A. Shukor & 6Shahrul Ridhwan S. Ali
1&2School of Law, UUM College of Law, Government and International Studies,Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia
3&4Faculty of Economics and Muamalat, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia, Malaysia 
5Jabatan Kemajuan Islam Malaysia, Malaysia6Shariah Consultant
1Corresponding author:  
E-Wallet has been applied in Muslim and non-Muslim jurisdictions in many parts of the world including Malaysia, China, India, and Korea. The application is widely used and has raised questions with regard to legal and shariah issues. This paper aims to analyse specifically, legal issues affecting e-wallet practices. This paper adopted a qualitative research approach. The data collected include document reviews, ethnographical interviews and observations. This study found several legal issues related to e-wallet inter alia, an unclear position on the liability of board directors of e-wallet operators, breach of mandate and exclusion of liability of e-wallet operators. As e-wallet is important as an enabler to increase financial inclusion, it is important to address the legal issues on e-wallet to enhance good governance and best practices of e-wallet in Malaysia. The findings from this paper can be used as a basis for policymakers including scholars in the formulation of guidelines on legal and shariah compliance of e-wallets.
Keywords: e-wallet, shariah contract, legal issues, Islamic finance. 

Asmah Laili Yeon
School of Law, UUM College of Law, Governement and International Studies, Universiti Utara Malaysia 
Corresponding author:  

Academic research journals play a significant role in the field of academia. Its major functions in producing, disseminating and exchanging academic knowledge are important to showcase the research performance of individuals. Publication of academic papers has been considered as a criteria for appointments, hiring, promotions and tenure decisions, worldwide. The current requirement to consider publishing in high quality journals is in its indication of the quality of a person’s research output. It is measured through the quality of the academic research publications, the number of citations of specific papers and the total number of citations. Accordingly, it is important to examine the issues regarding high impact publication of SCOPUS law journals in Asian countries. This is to enable all new SCOPUS law journals to study and practice good governance in publishing quality articles and for the board of editors to enhance the quality of journal management. The objectives of this paper are: (i) to examine the profiles of law journals in Asian countries indexed by SCOPUS and Web of Science (WoS); (ii) to examine citations and impact factors of law journals in Asian countries indexed by SCOPUS and WoS; and (iii) to study the ranking of SCOPUS law journals in Asian countries. This was an exploratory research and thus qualitative research method was adopted. An oline survey and an interview(s) were conducted by the researcher to gather data. The chief editor and managing editors of the SCOPUS law journals were the respondents via the online survey and an interview was conducted with the expert in managing high impact publications i.e. the Director of Infometric and Citation Department, Ministry of Education, Malaysia. Besides, secondary data was gathered from SCOPUS and WoS. In brief, the challenges in managing high impact journals are securing and maintaining high quality articles published by the journals. There must be periodic review of standard operating procedures by the board of editors in order to maintain an effective and efficient reviewing process, together with engaging staff with excellent proofreading skills. Additionally, the publisher must continuously upgrade the online publication system and maintain a friendly website for authors, subscribers and readers. Ethical practices and a focus on high quality and standard of article publication must be upheld by writers, editors, publishers including the indexing body.
Keywords: Law journal, legal publication, indexing, citation, high impact.


1Noor Aziah Mohd Awal, 2Mohd Al Adib Samuri, 3Fariza Md Sham & 4Nurul ‘Izzah Zainol
1Faculty of Law and Institute of Islam Hadhari, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia andHuman Rights Commission of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
2&3 Faculty of Islamic Studies and Institute of Islam Hadhari, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia 
4Faculty of Law, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia andTetuan Asyraf & Associates, Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia
1Corresponding author:
Hak asasi kanak-kanak yang ditahan di institusi tahanan hendaklah dijamin dan dipenuhi tanpa diskiriminasi. Institusi tahanan bukan sahaja berfungsi sebagai tempat menjalani perintah tetapi ia seharusnya berfungsi sebagai medium pemulihan bagi kanak-kanak yang berkonflik dengan undang-undang. Walaupun kanak-kanak tersebut telah dilucutkan hak kebebasannya atas pelanggaran undang-undang, mereka tidak seharusnya dinafikan hak-hak asasi manusia yang diperuntukkan dalam instrumen-instrumen hak asasi antarabangsa. Oleh itu, artikel ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis hak kanak-kanak dalam institusi tahanan yang dijamin dalam instrumen antarabangsa dan peruntukan undang-undang di Malaysia. Kajian ini mendapati masih wujud kelompongan peruntukan undang-undang mengenai hak kanak-kanak dalam institusi tahanan yang mungkin boleh membawa kepada pengabaian hak-hak tersebut. Kajian ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif dengan menganalisa dokumen berbentuk instrumen antarabangsa yang berkaitan dengan hak kanak kanak di institusi tahanan serta pemakaiannya di Malaysia. Dapatan kajian ini penting bagi memberi panduan kepada pembuat dasar dan penggubal undang-undang Malaysia bagi membuat pembaharuan undang-undang yang menjamin hak kanak-kanak di institusi tahanan.
Kata Kunci: Hak asasi manusia, hak kanak-kanak, institusi tahanan, sistem keadilan jenayah.
Children’s rights in detention centres should be ascertained without any discrimination. A detention centre not only serves as a place of execution but it should serve as a medium of rehabilitation for children in conflict with the law. Although these children have been deprived of their liberty, they should not be denied to exercise their basic human rights sanctions in international human rights instruments. Thus, this article aims to analyse all rights of children in detention centres according to international instruments and the Malaysian legal framework. This study used a qualitative approach employing document analysis on international instruments related to the rights of children in detention centres and their application in Malaysia. This study found that there are lacunas in Malaysian law with regard to children’s rights in detention centres that may cause oversight of such rights. This finding is significant for policymakers in reforming the law to guarantee children’s rights in detention centres.
Keywords: Human rights, children’s rights, detention centres, juvenile justice system.

1Ridzuan Mohamad, 2Zurita Mohd Yusoff & 3Nadhirah Nordin
1,2&3Pusat Pengajian Syariah, Fakulti Pengajian Kontemporari Islam, Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kampus Gong Badak, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia 
1Corresponding author:
Istibdāl mempunyai peranan penting terhadap tanah-tanah wakaf yang tidak produktif. Walau bagaimanapun, pelaksanaan istibdāl turut menjadi perhatian dari beberapa aspek. Kajian sebelum ini mengenai istibdāl adalah menjurus kepada aspek tertentu dan masih banyak ruangan untuk kajian lanjutannya. Sehubungan itu, kajian ini akan memfokuskan tiga objektif utama: Pertama, pemerhatian dari sudut hukum syarak; kedua, amalan pelaksanaan pada peringkat Majlis Agama Islam Negeri-Negeri (MAIN); dan ketiga, kajian dari sudut perbandingan dengan perundangan sivil. Kajian ini dijalankan melalui kaedah kajian kualitatif dan pendekatan kajian pula menggunakan reka bentuk penerokaan terhadap dokumen-dokumen yang berkaitan. Selain kajian perpustakaan yang dilaksanakan, kajian ini juga melibatkan kajian lapangan iaitu melalui temubual dengan beberapa pegawai wakaf daripada Majlis Agama Islam Negeri-Negeri (MAIN). Analisis kajian dilakukan secara kajian dokumen dengan melibatkan teknik analisis induktif, deduktif dan komparatif. Dapatan kajian yang pertama menunjukkan bahawa menurut keempat-empat mazhab, pelaksanaan istibdāl dibolehkan sekiranya tanah wakaf adalah dalam keadaan darurat. Selain itu, mazhab Hanafi turut membenarkan istibdāl jika harta yang diganti mempunyai elemen maslahat. Dapatan kajian yang kedua pula mendapati bahawa 37.5 peratus daripada pihak MAIN melaksanakan istibdāl secara jualan tanah, 37.5 peratus pula tidak melaksanakan dan 25 peratus lagi tidak menggalakkan. Manakala, dapatan kajian yang ketiga merungkaikan bahawa kedudukan istibdāl adalah tidak selari dengan perundangan sivil iaitu Akta Pengambilan Balik Tanah 1960 (Akta 486) Seksyen 3 (1) dan Kanun Tanah Negara 1965 (Akta 56) Seksyen 115 (4) (a). Rumusannya, hasil kajian ini telah mencadangkan beberapa penyelesaian bagi memastikan pelaksanaan istibdāl dilaksanakan dengan lebih efisien di negara ini. 
Kata Kunci: Tanah wakaf; istibdāl; hukum syarak; Jawatankuasa Fatwa dan Perundangan Sivil.
Istibdāl plays an important role in unproductive waqf lands. Although previous studies have converged on certain aspects including its implementation, there is still a vast uncharted area of studies on istibdāl. This study focused on three main objectives: First, observations on istibdāl from the perspective of syarak law; second, its implementation at the State Islamic Religious Council level; and third, a study on istibdāl from the comparative aspect, between syarak and civil laws. This study was conducted using the qualitative study method; the approach was exploratory in nature related to documents. Besides performing library research, field studies were also conducted through interviews with several waqf officers from the State Islamic Religious Council. Research analysis was performed through document study involving inductive, deductive and comparative analysis techniques. Firstly, the study found that implementation of istibdāl is allowed if waqf land is in a state of emergency, in accordance with the four sects. Besides this, the Hanafi sect also allows istibdāl if a substituted property contains the element of maslahat (benefit). Secondly, the findings revealed that 37.5 percent of Main implemented istibdāl as land for sale, 37.5 percent did not implement this and the other 25 percent did not encourage it. Thirdly, the study found that the position of istibdāl is not aligned with civil laws which include the Land Acquistion Act 1960 (Act 486) Section 3 (1) and the National Land Code 1965 (Act 56) Section 115 (4) (a). Based on these findings, several suggestions are proffered to ensure that implementation of istibdāl is effectively executed in the country.
Keywords: Waqf land; istibdāl; syarak law; Committee of Fatwa and Civil Legislation.

1Nurbazla Ismail, 2Abdul Basir Mohamad & 3Ummi Rose Azra Mohamad Tajuddin
1,2&3Research Centre for Sharia, Faculty of Islamic Studies, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Malaysia
1Corresponding author:
Peruntukan berkaitan keterangan saksi pakar forensik telah lama digunakan di mahkamah berdasarkan peruntukan keterangan pakar. Walau bagaimanapun, terdapat pertikaian dari sudut kriteria penerimaan keterangan saksi pakar forensik. Oleh itu, timbul persoalan berkaitan kriteria pemilihan saksi pakar forensik yang boleh dipanggil untuk memberikan keterangan di mahkamah. Objektif kajian ini adalah untuk mengenalpasti kriteria pemilihan saksi pakar forensik di mahkamah. Reka bentuk kajian ini adalah kajian kualitatif yang mengumpulkan bahan kajian lepas dan temu bual separa berstruktur. Data kajian dianalisis menggunakan kaedah tematik dan deskriptif. Hasil kajian mendapati bahawa tiada penetapan kriteria khusus dalam pemilihan saksi pakar forensik untuk memberikan keterangan di mahkamah. Namun, terdapat beberapa cadangan kriteria yang perlu ada sebelum seseorang pakar forensik diterima sebagai saksi pakar di mahkamah. Kajian ini memberikan implikasi kepada pengamal undang-undang dalam memilih saksi pakar yang boleh dipanggil ke mahkamah dan kepada pakar forensik yang akan memberikan keterangan di mahkamah.
Kata kunci: Kriteria saksi pakar; kelayakan saksi pakar; pakar forensik; keterangan forensik; mahkamah di Malaysia.
Provisions relating to the testimony of a forensic expert witness have long been applied in court on the basis of the provisions of expert evidence. However, there are disputes regarding the acceptance criteria for a forensic expert witness. As a result, questions arise as to the criteria for the selection of forensic expert witness who may be called to testify in court. The objective of this study is to identify the criteria of selection of forensic expert witness in court. This qualitative study gathered data from literature reviews and semi-structured interviews. The data were analyzed using thematic and descriptive methods. The study found that there are no specific criteria for the selection of forensic expert witness to testify in court. However, there are some suggested criteria that must be established before a forensic expert is accepted as an expert witness before a court of law. This study has implications for legal practitioners in selecting expert witness who can be called to court and for forensic experts who will testify in court. 
Keywords: criteria for expert witness, qualification for expert witness, forensic expert, forensic evidence, court in Malaysia.

1Nurli Yaacob, 2Nasri Naiimi & 3Munirah Kasim
1&3Pusat Pengajian Undang-Undang, Universiti Utara Malaysia
2Pusat Pengajian Perniagaan Islam, Universiti Utara Malaysia 
1Corresponding author:  
Perniagaan francais melibatkan pemberian hak oleh francaisor kepada francaisi untuk menduplikasi keseluruhan sistem perniagaan francaisor dengan bayaran yuran tertentu. Risiko untuk gagal dalam perniagaan adalah rendah memandangkan perniagaan ini sudah terbukti berjaya dan sentiasa dipantau oleh francaisor. Memandangkan francaisi menduplikasi sistem perniagaan francaisor, francaisor mestilah memberikan hak kepada francaisi untuk menjalankan perniagaan termasuk penggunaan harta inteleknya. Francaisor juga berhak mengawal perniagaan bagi menjaga kualiti dan keseragaman produk atau perkhidmatan. Namun, sejauhmanakah kedua-dua hak ini dilaksanakan? Oleh itu, objektif artikel ini ialah untuk membincangkan tentang hak untuk menjalankan perniagaan dan kawalan dalam perniagaan francais di Malaysia disamping membuat sedikit perbincangan dari sudut pandangan Islam. Kajian ini merupakan kajian kualitatif menggunakan pendekatan kajian undang-undang yang disokong oleh temubual dengan menggunakan data primer dan data sekunder. Data primer diperoleh melalui dokumen perundangan iaitu akta, kes dan juga melalui temubual manakala data sekunder diperolehi melalui buku dan jurnal daripada Perpustakaan Sultanah Bahiyah, Universiti Utara Malaysia. Data primer daripada dokumen undang-undang dan data sekunder dianalisis menggunakan kaedah analitikal dan kritikal manakala data primer daripada temubual dianalisis menggunakan kaedah tematik. Kajian ini dapat memberi manfaat sebagai sumber rujukan kepada Kementerian Perdagangan Dalam Negeri dan Hal Ehwal Pengguna, Persatuan Francais Malaysia, francaisor, francaisi, peguam, tenaga akademik dan juga pelajar undang-undang secara amnya. Dapatan kajian daripada analisis ke atas dokumen perundangan menunjukkan kedua-dua hak ini dinyatakan dengan jelas di dalam Akta Francais 1998. Malah ia merupakan komponen utama dalam definisi francais di bawah seksyen 4. Dapatan daripada temubual dengan kesemua informan yang terdiri daripada francaisor menunjukkan mereka mematuhi kehendak berkenaan pemberian hak menjalankan perniagaan termasuk penggunaan harta intelek dan juga elemen kawalan ke atas perniagaan francais oleh francaisor. Secara tidak langsung, mereka mematuhi kehendak di bawah Akta Francais 1998. Sebagai kesimpulannya, hak untuk menjalankan perniagaan dan kawalan mesti dimasukkan di dalam perjanjian bagi menjaga kepentingan kedua-dua pihak yang berkontrak. 
Kata kunci: Menjalankan perniagaan, kawalan, francais, Akta Francais 1998, Malaysia.  
Franchise business involves the granting of rights by the franchisor to the franchisee to duplicate the entire franchise system with payment of certain fees. Since the franchisee is duplicating the franchisor's business system, the franchisor must grant the franchisee the right to operate business including the use of intellectual property. The franchisor also has the right to control the business to maintain quality and uniformity of the product or service. Nevertheless, how far have these two rights been implemented? The objective of this article is to discuss the right to operate and control in the franchise business in Malaysia including related discussions from the Islamic perspective. This qualitaive study employed the legal research approach supported by interviews using primary and secondary data. Primary data was obtained through legal documents such as acts, cases and interviews, while secondary data was obtained from books and journals from the Sultanah Bahiyah Library, Universiti Utara Malaysia. Both primary and secondary data were analyzed using analytical and critical methods while primary data from interviews were analyzed using thematic methods. This study could be a source of reference for policymakers, government agencies, the Malaysian Franchise Association, franchisors, franchisees, legal practitioners, and academia. Analysis of legal documents showed that these two rights have been expressly stated in the Franchise Act 1998 and represent key components of the definition of franchise under section 4. Findings from interviews with all informants comprising franchisors indicated their compliance with the requirements regarding granting business rights and use of intellectual property, including elements of control over the business of franchisees. Thus, they ındirectly complied with requirements of the Franchise Act 1998. In conclusion, the right to operate business and control must be included in a franchise agreement to safeguard both contracting parties. 
Keywords: Operate business, control, franchise, Franchise Act 1998, Malaysia.

UUM Journal of Legal Studies
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