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UUM Journal of Legal Studies (JLS) Vol. 6, 2015

A Critical Appraisal of China’s ‘Four Comprehensives’ Grand Narrative
John Garrick and Yan Chang Bennett

The Legal Critical Literature Review
Muhammad Nuruddeen

The Legal Prohibition Of Surrogacy For Muslims In Malaysia: A Critical Analysis
Kyaw Hla Win Md. Hassan Ahmed

The Aboriginal Peoples Act 1954 And The Recognition Of Orang Asli Land Rights
Izawati Wook

Extending The Scope Of Proprietary Remedies To Recovery Of Pure Profits From Successful Investment Of Bribes: The Endgame In Lister V Stubbs
Mohsin Hingun and Aiman Nariman Mohd Sulaiman

The Dichotomy of the Legal Status of Sexual Minorities: A Critical Analysis of Judicial Trends across the Globe and India
Smiriti Brar and Sweenab Dutta

Pembeli Bona Fide Dalam Penipuan Tanah:Isu Dan Cabaran
Noraida binti Harun and Jady @ Zaidi bin Hassim

Does Ownership Structure Matter For Publicly Listed Companies Performance In Malaysia?
Rozita Arshad

Developing A Model For Pre-Action Dispute Resolution For Strata Dispute Management In Malaysia
Nor Asiah Mohamad

Kontrak Tukaran Matawang Asing Melalui Internet: Satu Tinjauan Hukum
Alias Bin Azhar, Mohd Zaki Zainol and Mohd. Nizho Abdul Rahman

Book Review - Bentham’s Theory Of Fictions
Gary Lilienthal    


A Critical Appraisal of China’s ‘Four Comprehensives’ Grand Narrative
John Garrick and Yan Chang Bennett

ABSTRACT FULL TEXT

In China today,President Xi Jinping’s new grand narrative is framed by the widely publicised ‘four comprehensives’ (四个全面; ‘sigequanmian’). This narrative aims to : 1.build a moderately prosperous society; 2. deepen reform; 3. govern the nation according to law, and 4. tighten Party discipline. It is essentially a political narrative that tells a moral tale that legitimizes and glorifies the virtues of the present. It also attempts to shrug off mistakes of the previous dynasty. Drawing on the legal disciplines of economic law, international comparative law and the a priori analytic method of legal narrative analysis, this paper provides a critical appraisal of the ‘four comprehensives’, paying special attention to how the four principal strands of the narrative shape the directions of China’s socialist rule of law reforms and governance.

Key words: Chinese law reform; four comprehensives; 四个全面; sigequanmian;socialist rule of law;legal narrative analysis; economic-law nexus, South China Sea.


The Legal Critical Literature Review
Muhammad Nuruddeen
 
ABSTRACT FULL TEXT

This paper explains the legal critical literature review in the critical context of the logic of scholarship. The paper asks what makes a critical literature review effective in research. It suggests that critical literature reviews are effective in research when they more easily allow the identification of research gaps, in the specified context. The methodology employs cumulative synthesis from the relevant materials, following Bentham’s ideas on synthesis, that analysis opposes both generalization and synthesis. The paper begins its argument by outlining the nature of a critical literature review. Then, it proceeds with a review of key terms required by the writer. Following this essential background, the paper discusses literature gaps and literature search methodologies. Then it moves on to the ideal format of a critical literature review. Finally, argument deals with the purpose of a critical literature review and techniques for writing the critical literature review. A legal critical literature review will be maximally effective when it sets a correct context for research, identifies fallacies in the scholarship in order to discover research gaps, and then forms this outcome into a central research question.

Keywords: legal critical literature review, research gaps, fallacies, research question.


The Legal Prohibition Of Surrogacy For Muslims In Malaysia: A Critical Analysis
Kyaw Hla Win Md. Hassan Ahmed

ABSTRACT FULL TEXT

This paper sets out to determine the legal status of human reproductive surrogacy for Muslims in Malaysia. It asks whether or not Muslims are prohibited by Islamic Law from human reproductive surrogacy. Muslims are governed in their personal matters by the Islamic law of the respective states. The word Muslim is not defined in the Malaysian Constitution. Argument deals with the position of the Islamic law in Malaysia, before discussing surrogacy. This will be set out first in the position of the Islamic law, then, argument discusses the role of the Islamic jurist and the Islamic legal consultative committee. This is followed by the role of the national fatwa committee. Finally, the article deals with the prohibition of surrogacy for Muslims as a legal dilemma. The paper will suggest that in some states, Muslims would be free to use surrogacy services in accordance with the general law of Malaysia.
 

Keywords:Surrogacy, Surrogate mother, Surrogacy in Malaysia, Surrogacy in Islam


THE ABORIGINAL PEOPLES ACT 1954 AND THE RECOGNITION OF ORANG ASLI LAND RIGHTS
Izawati Wook

ABSTRACT FULL TEXT

The prevailing view about the Orang Asli’s occupation of land and access to forest resources are that they are ‘privileges’ extended by the states or at the governments’ discretion. It is widely believed that the Orang Asli live on the State land as tenant-at-will. This paper proposes to examine the position of the Aboriginal Peoples Act 1954 (Act 153) (the APA) and trace its historical background. It takes both historical and doctrinal approaches in the legal research methodology. Situated within this historical background, the principle that developed from it and the position of the laws, the paper argues that under the principle of respect to the rights of the existing inhabitants, the law recognizes the rights of the Orang Asli to their land and resources that arose from their custom and practice. The APA establishes a framework to recognize and protect these rights. There is no legal basis for the perception that the Orang Asli live on the State land on the benevolence of the State.

Keywords
: Legal history; Aboriginal Peoples Act 1954; Indigenous peoples; Orang Asli; Peninsular Malaysia.


Extending The Scope Of Proprietary Remedies To Recovery Of Pure Profits From Successful Investment Of Bribes: The Endgame In Lister V Stubbs
Mohsin Hingun and Aiman Nariman Mohd Sulaiman

ABSTRACT FULL TEXT

For more than a century Lister v Stubbs (1890) 45 Ch D 1 stood as authoritative Court of Appeal judgment denying the recovery of profits acquired from the successful investment of gains obtained in breach of fiduciary duties. The rule was rationalized on the basis that while the claimant was entitled to the proceeds so unlawfully obtained, he lacked any form of proprietary title to the profits accumulated by the defaulting fiduciary. The harsh reality of the rule produced an unfair outcome to the claimant and the Privy Council refused to apply it in Attorney-General for Hong Kong v Reid [1994] 1 AC 324. The rule also fell out of favour in other leading commonwealth jurisdictions and recently the English courts at all levels had the opportunity to reassess its relevance when the Supreme Court in FHR European Ventures LLP and others v Cedar Capital Partners LLC [2014] 4 All ER 79 consigned it to oblivion. The objective of this paper is to analyse the merits and the deficiencies of the rule and show how the judges of the English courts were prepared to act on policy ground, in comity with other common law jurisdictions in upholding justice in a borderless world.

Keywords: breach of Fiduciary duty; Accounts of profits; Proprietary interests; Recovery of pure profits.


 The Dichotomy of the Legal Status of Sexual Minorities: A Critical Analysis of Judicial Trends across the Globe and India
Smiriti Brar and Sweenab Dutta

ABSTRACT
FULL TEXT

The ever-controversial issue of sexual minorities and homosexuality has remained contentious since the very term was introduced, primarily because it has been seen as unnatural and does not correspond with what society as well as the legal norms prevailing in the society, define as ‘normal’. It becomes imperative to briefly examine the development of the laws governing these populations and their impact on the societies’ evolving attitudes towards homosexual relationships and transgender, to show the progress of the gay liberation movement and its effects on formulation of the laws in the society. Aside from the judgment of the heterosexual world, many myths about homosexuality have been imagined. Thus, with this backdrop on the issue at hand, the authors aspire to analyze and attempt to unveil these myths, arguing about the welfare and protection of these classes of individuals who fight a daily battle to secure their identities in the society we dwell in. The authors strive to comprehend the legal status of the LGBT communities across the globe and compare their plight to that in India, to critically analyze their legal rights and interests and ensure the level of implementation in the various regimes, to comprehend the various judicial measures that have been undertaken to safeguard the very existence of such communities, and conclusively enunciate the various lessons that could be learnt from the ongoing judicial trend and how the same may be put in application considering the Indian modus operandi. The authors aim to dig deep into the concerns where these aversions in relation to homosexuality can be reversed and the society could evolve as broad-minded, understanding the concerns of such persons who live under the constant apprehension of being ‘found out’ and the various forms of discrimination and atrocities that they have faced and are still facing under the present Indian legal regime.

Keywords: sexual minorities; homosexuality; legal status; judicial trends; India


 Pembeli Bona Fide Dalam Penipuan Tanah:Isu Dan Cabaran
Noraida binti Harun and Jady @ Zaidi bin Hassim

ABSTRACT
FULL TEXT

 Abstract: Kedudukan undang-undang yang terpakai di Malaysia dengan keputusan kes Adorna Properties Sdn Bhd v Boonsom Boonyanit [2001] 2 CLJ 133 adalah bahawa hak pemilik asal bagi sesuatu hak milik tanah adalah tidak dilindungi sepenuhnya jika hak milik tersebut telah bertukar milik kepada pihak lain dengan cara frod, dengan syarat pemilik baru (pembeli) telah mendapatkan hak milik ini secara bona fide (suci hati) berserta balasan. Pemilik asal tidak berhak dari segi undang-undang untuk mendapatkan kembali tanah tersebut daripada pembeli baru. Dengan erti kata lain, dengan keputusan ini walaupun penukaran hak milik diperoleh melalui frod, jika pembeli berdaftar adalah pembeli bona fide akan mendapat hak milik tidak boleh disangkal. Keputusan kes ini telah menjadi binding precedent (duluan mengikat) kepada semua Mahkamah di Malaysia dan prinsip dalam kes ini hanya boleh dibaiki atau diperbetulkan melalui keputusan lain oleh Mahkamah Persekutuan sahaja. Pada 2010, kes Tan Yin Hong v Tan Sian San [2010] 2 CLJ 269 yang telah diputuskan oleh Mahkamah Persekutuan adalah merupakan kes utama (landmark case) yang telah menyemak semula prinsip undang-undang yang dipakai dalam kes Adorna Properties. Kedudukan undang-undang selepas keputusan kes 2010 ini jelas menunjukkan pemilik asal mempunyai hak milik yang tidak boleh disangkal dan berhak untuk mendapatkan kembali tanah tersebut apabila terbukti penipuan tanah berlaku. Artikel ini ditulis untuk mengkaji kedudukan dan remedi kepada pembeli bona fide apabila keputusan berpihak kepada pemilik tanah yang mungkin turut mengundang ketidakadilan di pihak pembeli bona fide kerana mereka hanya semata-mata bergantung kepada dokumen hak milik apabila berurusan dengan urusan pindah milik tanah. Metodologi yang digunakan dalam kajian ini ialah kajian kepustakaan iaitu analisis dokumen seperti kes-kes yang diputuskan oleh mahkamah, buku-buku dan artikel-artikel. Penulisan ini turut mengutarakan beberapa cadangan penambahbaikan dan penyelesaian dalam menjamin kepentingan dan hak – hak semua pihak yang terlibat.

 

Kata kunci: Pembeli bona fide, kedudukan dan remedi, cabaran, cadangan penambahbaikan.

 

Abstract:The legal position applicable in Malaysia based on the decision of Adorna Properties Sdn Bhd v Boonsom Boonyanit [2001] 2 CLJ 133 is that the right of the original owners of a land title is not fully protected if the property was transferred to another party by means of fraud, provided the new owner (buyer) has acquired ownership with bona fide (good faith) with consideration. The original owner is not legally entitled to recover the land from the new buyer. In other words, with this decision even though the conversion of ownership was obtained by fraud, if the registered buyer is a bona fide purchaser, the ownership is undeniable. The decision of this case became a binding precedent to all courts in Malaysia and the principle in this case can only be restored or corrected by another decision of the Federal Court. In 2010, the case of Tan Yin Hong v Tan Sian San [2010] 2 CLJ 269 which was decided by the Federal Court was a landmark case which revised the legal principles applied in Adorna Properties.The legal position after the decision of the case in 2010 clearly shows that the original owner has undeniable ownership and has the right to reposses the land when fraud is proven. This purpose of the article is to study the position and the remedy of the bona fide purchaser when the decision in favor of the landowner which may invite injustice to the bona fide purchaser as they solely depending on the document title when dealing with transfer of land matters.The methodology used in this study is a library based research which includes document analysis such as the decided cased, books and articles. This study also raises suggestions of improvement and outcome to ensure the interests and rights of the parties involved.

 

Keywords: bona fide purchaser, ranking and remedies, challenges, suggestions for improvement.

 


Does Ownership Structure Matter For Publicly Listed Companies Performance In Malaysia?
Rozita Arshad

ABSTRACT FULL TEXT

The word of corporate governance has become a very important concept that requires many countries around the world to concentrate on its reformation. Globalisation of markets, open markets competition, and international business has generated awareness about the importance of improving corporate governance practices. Protecting shareholders and other stakeholders are also being attentive agenda and play important roles in corporate governance reforms due to ensure their value creation and their right as the owner of the shares. This article attempts to address this issue by examining the relationship between ownership structure and firm performance. The hypothesis is tested by assessing the impact of the structure of ownership on firm performance, using data for 237 Malaysia Public Listed Companies (PLCs). Therefore, this paper will provide an insight into further understanding on the issue of the relationship between ownership structure and firm performance

Keywords: Corporate governance, ownership structure, shareholders, firm performance


Developing A Model For Pre-Action Dispute Resolution For Strata Dispute Management In Malaysia
Nor Asiah Mohamad

ABSTRACT FULL TEXT

The Malaysian government has finally announced for the implementation of Strata Management Act 2013 with the aims to cater disputes in the management of strata titled properties. Among the most important aspect of the Act is to introduce Strata Management Tribunal as a platform to resolve disputes among the strata owners and all stakeholders in relation to strata management and maintenance. This research addresses the period prior to the adjudication process by the Tribunal and proposes a model for early dispute resolution before the hearing. The author argues that early dispute resolution or early conflict engagement is necessary despite the establishment of Strata Management Tribunal to address non-technical issues, which involve restoration of social relationship. The author highlights the practice of other jurisdiction, for example, Victoria, Australia as well Hong Kong. The findings of the research show that Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) methods such as mediation or conciliation are suitable to be adopted within and outside Tribunal process.

Keywords: stratified properties, Strata Management Tribunal, Strata Management Act, mediation, conciliation and Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR)


Kontrak Tukaran Matawang Asing Melalui Internet: Satu Tinjauan Hukum
Alias Bin Azhar, Mohd Zaki Zainol and Mohd. Nizho Abdul Rahman

ABSTRACT FULL TEXT

Abstract: Kontrak tukaran mata wang asing atau foreign exchange (forex) mula timbul apabila wujud urusniaga perdagangan antarabangsa yang melibatkan dua buah negara yang menggunakan matawang yang berbeza. Penilaian hukum dalam isu berkenaan perlu melalui kaedah pentafsiran dan pemahaman terhadap terma-terma yang digunapakai dalam kontrak tersebut. Terma-terma seperti leveraj, lindung nilai (hedging) dan swap dinilai secara tuntas berdasarkan modus operandi yang praktikal bagi membolehkan penilaian hukum dibuat secara tepat. Artikel ini membincangkan tentang isu-isu kontrak dan modus operandi urusniaga matawang asing serta aplikasinya dari aspek praktikal menggunakan internet. Perbincangan menjurus kepada penilaian hukum berdasarkan undang-undang transaksi Islam tentang bentuk kontrak (‘akad) yang digunapakai, penggunaan lindung nilai dan leveraj dalam kontrak tukaran wang asing melalui internet.

 

Kata kunci : Kontrak, Tukaran Matawang Asing, Transaksi Islam, Leveraj, Muamalat

 

Abstract: Foreign currency exchange contracts or foreign exchange (forex) began to arise when there is an international trade transaction involves two countries using different currencies. The legal assessment of the said issue should apply methods of interpretation and understanding of the terms to be applied in the contract. Terms such as leverage, hedging (hedging) and swap are thoroughly evaluated based on a practical modus operandi allowing for the precise legal assessment. This article discusses the contractual issues and modus operandi of foreign currency transactions and its application from the practical aspects using the Internet. Discussion on the legal assessment is based on the Islamic law of transactions on applied type of contract ('akad), the use of hedging and leverage in foreign exchange contracts via the Internet.

Keywords: Contract, Foreign Exchange, Islamic Transaction, Leverage, Muamalat




Book Review - Bentham’s Theory Of Fictions
Gary Lilienthal

ABSTRACT FULL TEXT

This review1 is a commentary on Ogden’s introduction to Jeremy Bentham’s Theory of Fictions. 2 It tries to show that legal fiction suggests fraud by the user, and more, may well mislead the court. Ogden’s introduction separates into five major headings. There is a still a tendency among practising lawyers to speak in pejorative tones about the study of jurisprudence. This tendency may be an indicium of a failure to understand the law’s underlying reasoning, and instead, to prefer the law’s cultus,3 manifesting as fraud and abuse of legislative power. In this view, the reasons are the rules themselves. Therefore, this review addresses Ogden’s sections on legal fictions,the vocabulary of fiction,the technique of definition, and fallacies. The review will not discuss Ogden’s conclusion or his note on Bentham’s method of composition.

 

 

UUM Journal of Legal Studies
College of Law, Government and International Studies
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