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UUM Journal of Legal Studies (JLS) Vol. 2, 2011

OWNERSHIP VERSUS CONTROL: FAULT LINES IN DIRECTORS-SHAREHOLDERS RELATIONSHIP-SPECIAL REFERENCE TO MALAYSIAN FAMILY BUSINESS
Zuhairah Ariff Abd Ghadas (Ph.D) & Halyani Hassan (Ph.D)
International Islamic University Malaysia

ABSTRACT FULL TEXT

The structure of family business is unique compared to the non-family business as it combines three elements, namely, family relationships, composition of owners and management structure under the name of the business. This distinctive attribute often give rise to governance issues. Under the conventional concept of corporate governance, directors should act in the best interest of the shareholders. In doing so, the directors’ action is governed by certain rules which specify their duties and these rules are relevant to the shareholders with respect to their rights. Although there are laws which govern the relationship between the directors and shareholders, in certain circumstances there are some latent problems. These hidden problems can be identified as the fault lines in the relationship between directors and shareholders. This article discusses the issues pertaining to fault lines which may arise in a family business due to the complex and overlapping structure between directors and shareholders in a family business. Research methodology applied in this research is mainly doctrinal analysis.

Keywords: Family Business, Directors, Shareholders


A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE PRACTICE OF THE UNITED KINGDOM AND MALAYSIA IN RESPECT OF FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION
Nazli bin Ismail @ Nawang1*
Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin

ABSTRACT FULL TEXT

International law, particularly treaties on human rights, has great influence on the development of the right to freedom of expression. The application of international treaties is very much dependant on the constitutions of individual countries and these constitutions to a large extent are dissimilar from one to another. The position in the United Kingdom is relatively unique since the country has no codified written constitution to safeguard the fundamental right to freedom of expression and as a result it was regarded as residual in nature. Nonetheless, the provisions of the international treaties, particularly the European Convention on the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (ECHR) have altered this position and accordingly freedom of expression has been formally incorporated into the UK law via the Human Rights Act 1998 (HRA). Meanwhile, the international human rights treaties is considered to have less influence in Malaysia arguably since the country has a written constitution (the Federal Constitution) that contains a specific part on fundamental liberties including the right to freedom of expression.

Keywords: International law, treaties, freedom of expression.


FALLUJAH BATTLES: VIOLATIONS OF THE INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW
Rohaida Nordin1 & Tareq Hamid
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

ABSTRACT FULL TEXT

In April and November of 2004, the civilian population of Fallujah City experienced two extremely violent battles (“the Fallujah Battles”) initiated by the Coalition Forces (CF) in Iraq. Marked by the killing and displacement of hundreds of thousands of people in Fallujah City, the Fallujah Battles raise a number of issues related to international humanitarian law (IHL), as well as concerns regarding the legal institutions charged with the protection of international human rights. This article generally discusses the crime allegedly committed against civilians by the CF – which included the USA, UK and Iraqi forces – during the Fallujah Battles. The first part examines the principal IHL instruments considered in relation to acts that were committed during the Battles of Fallujah. The discussion then considers whether actions taken against civilians, civilian properties and medical units by the CF; and the prohibition of International Committee of Red Cross (ICRC) from carrying out its duties in wartime by the CF amount to violations of IHL. The second part considers whether the use of white phosphor constitutes a violation of contemporary IHL, particularly in relation to whether such weapons can be considered chemical weapons prohibited by IHL. Finally, this article discusses the potential legal mechanisms available to prosecute alleged perpetrators of war crimes in Fallujah.

Keywords: Fallujah battles, international humanitarian law, Geneva Conventions, war crimes, protection of civilians


THE ANOMALY OF CONTEMPT IN THE FACE OF THE COURT RECORD
A. Vijayalakshmi Venugopal & Kamal Halili Hassan
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

ABSTRACT FULL TEXT

Categories and forms of contempt of court are not closed, whereby, judges have the discretion to use this power when they deem appropriate. However, there are a number of traditional categories that have been created and used by the courts in Malaysia and the United Kingdom. Contempt in the face of the court record has not been a traditional category of contempt in either country, and, thus far, has only been recognised in Malaysia in one case. The aims of this paper are to consider what the scope of contempt in the face of the court record is, when it should apply and whether this category is clearly distinct from the other existing categories of contempt of court. It is suggested that it may not have been necessary to create the category of contempt in the face of the court record as there appears to be an overlap between this category and the other categories of contempt of court.

Keywords: contempt of court, contempt in the face of the court record.


HAK UNTUK MENDAPATKAN PEGUAM SEMASA PERBICARAAN JENAYAH BAGI GOLONGAN YANG TIDAK BERKEMAMPUAN DI MALAYSIA1
Zulazhar bin Tahir
Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur

ABSTRACT FULL TEXT

Hak untuk mendapatkan peguam terutama dalam kes-kes jenayah adalah amat penting. Hak ini sebenarnya telah diperuntukkan di bawah Artikel 5(3) Perlembagaan Persekutuan. Malahan seksyen 255 Kanun Prosedur Jenayah turut memperuntukkan hak untuk dibela oleh seorang peguam bagi tertuduh yang sedang dibicarakan di Mahkamah. Seksyen 28A Kanun Prosedur Jenayah juga turut memperuntukkan hak untuk mendapatkan peguam ini bagi seseorang yang ditangkap. Selain daripada itu, bantuan guaman bagi mereka yang tidak berkemampuan turut diberikan oleh Jabatan Bantuan Guaman melalui Akta Bantuan Guaman 1971. Di samping itu, bantuan gumanan ini juga turut diberikan oleh Majlis Peguam bagi membantu golongan-golongan yang tidak berkemampuan ini. Namun begitu, persoalan yang timbul ialah adakah bantuan ini mencapai sasarannya iaitu untuk membantu golongan yang tidak berkemampuan dalam mendapatkan khidmat seorang peguam di Malaysia? Selain itu, persoalan yang seterusnya ialah adakah bantuan yang diberikan mencukupi dalam memberikan keadilan kepada golongan yang tidak berkemampuan ini? Persoalan ini penting untuk dijawab memandangkan ketidakhadiran peguam untuk membantu seseorang tertuduh semasa perbicaraan mengibaratkan kedudukan tertuduh seperti telur dihujung tanduk. Malah tertuduh juga akan menghadapi risiko yang amat tinggi untuk disabitkan jika tidak dibantu oleh seorang peguam semasa perbicaraan. Oleh itu, artikel ini akan mengupas kepentingan dan keberkesanan hak untuk mendapatkan peguam ini dalam membantu golongan yang miskin di Malaysia. Selain itu, artikel ini juga akan membuat perbandingan dengan beberapa negara Komenwel yang lain dalam melihat keberkesanan hak untuk mendapatkan peguam dalam membantu golongan yang tidak berkemampuan di negara-negara mereka.

UUM Journal of Legal Studies
College of Law, Government and International Studies
06010 UUM Sintok, Kedah Darul Aman, Malaysia.

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