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UUM Journal of Legal Studies (JLS) Vol. 3, 2012

CONSUMER PROTECTION FOR ONLINE BANKING SCAMS VIA E-MAIL IN MALAYSIA
Edy Santoso1
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Universitas Islam Nusantara

ABSTRACT FULL TEXT

The new advancement in technology both hard and soft is creating new opportunities for cyber criminals. It is an effective tool for going against the law. In the economic sector, the number of Malaysians opting for online banking to do transaction is increasing. There are 9.8 million online banking account holders in Malaysia. However, cases of online banking scams in Malaysia have been increasing since such first case was registered in 2005. Statistics from Financial Mediation Bureau showed that the number of cases had increased. Therefore, the objectives of this paper are to identify cyber scams via email in online banking business model and to examine consumer protection of online banking scams in Malaysia.

Keywords: Online banking scam, email scam, phishing website


THE INTRODUCTION OF BIOTERRORISM IN MALAYSIA: A LEGAL APPROACH
Nor Anita binti Abdullah1 & Rohani binti Abdul Rahim2

ABSTRACT FULL TEXT

The deliberate use of biological agents and the emergence of infectious diseases which can produce harm to human health and give effects to the public health and security are well recognised. A few years back, an attack of biological agents would be the most unthinkable situation to happen. However, the threat of bioterrorism is real and it is growing. It continues to be a major challenge today and the possibility of bioterrorism is undeniable as it is increasingly defined globally as ‘not if, but when’. Therefore, this paper attempts to give a brief explanation on the threat of bioterrorism as to the emergence of infectious diseases and the legal history of international law on bioterrorism. The main objective of this paper is to find out the need for bioterrorism law in Malaysian i.e. a legal approach. The study is a social legal research, which uses a qualitative approach. Thus, due to lack of materials and publications in Malaysia, in order to achieve the objectives, the methodology used was based on a semi structured interviews conducted with three respected experts in public health and security to explore the real situation in Malaysia. The authors found out that the finding of this study had established that an outbreak of infectious diseases can now be viewed as a threat that may result to bioterrorism if there is no preparation to handle it.

Keywords: Bioterrorism, biological agents, infectious diseases, legal and preparedness


THE IMPACT OF TRIPS AGREEMENT ON ACCESS TO MEDICINES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: LEGAL CHALLENGES FACED BY THE PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY PARTICULARLY IN INDIA
Kamini Shanmugaiah1

ABSTRACT FULL TEXT

The impact of intellectual property rights in particular patent relating to public health has posed numerous challenges faced by developing countries who are members of World Trade Organisation (WTO). This paper examines the impact of TRIPS Agreement (Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights) in relation to developing countries in general with specification made to India. Significant changes brought about by the TRIPS flexibilities in particular usage of compulsory licensing and Bolar provision have to a certain extent benefited the developing countries in the field of public health during national emergency. The TRIPS flexibilities by way of amendment have helped countries that (do not possess manufacturing capacities) to import medicines. Some developing countries even utilised TRIPS flexibilities in an aggressive manner to enforce their right to have access to medicines from other countries for the benefit of their citizens. Further, TRIPs flexibilities have helped developing countries to manufacture generic products to make it affordable to the people. This paper specifically examines the impact of the TRIPS Agreement on Indian generic pharmaceutical industry and the legal challenges faced by Indian pharmaceutical industry after the implementation of product patent regime effective from 1 January 2005. The Patent Amendment Act 2005(India) will be looked into especially on the controversy in respect of Section 3(d) of the Patent Amendment Act 2005(India) on the requirement of patentability. The new Section 92A of the Patent Amendment Act 2005(India) on the grounds to invoke compulsory licensing will be analysed to see whether Indian government has applied restrictive or broad approach, as compulsory licensing is certainly an important legal


TRANSFORMATION OF ISLAMIC LAW ON THE NATIONAL LEGAL SYSTEM IN INDONESIAN CONSTITUTIONAL PERSPECTIVE
Zainal Arifin Hoesein
Universitas Indonesia

ABSTRACT FULL TEXT

Law is the accumulation of rational ideas in response to community development that was born based on the idea of universality and morality. The idea of universality provides a justification for the enactment of basic human freedoms and recognition of basic human rights in the life of the country. Similarly, the idea of morality is that moral principles are general and can be analyzed by human reason. The second idea is the essence of it is used as a basic idea about the nature of the formulation of law and justice as a legal the flow law functional purpose in looking at the law more focused on the facts of a field, social, cultural, political, and religion as factors that need to be a consideration in seeking legal solutions. Both streams are still evolving and are applied in various countries around the world. With regard to the transformation of Islamic law in national legal systems, it cannot be separated from these two streams of law that is through a systems approach and the approach to legislation.

Keyword: Transformation of the law, politics of law, national legal system, System of national law


FROD DALAM URUS NIAGA TANAH: SATU KAJIAN PERBANDINGAN DENGAN UNDANG-UNDANG TANAH AUSTRALIA1
Noraida binti Harun
Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA)2

ABSTRACT FULL TEXT

Falsafah sistem Torrens ialah ia merupakan satu sistem pentadbiran tanah berasaskan pendaftaran. Sebagai asas sistem Torrens, pendaftaran adalah prasyarat hak milik yang tidak boleh disangkal. Kesan daripada pendaftaran ialah undang-undang mengurniakan kepada penerima pindah milik, pemajak atau pemegang gadaian atau penerima isemen, hak milik yang tidak boleh disangkal. Tetapi sejak mutakhir ini banyak kejadian jenayah kes frod dalam urus niaga tanah menunjukkan peningkatan dari masa ke semasa. Peningkatan kes-kes ini menimbulkan rasa bimbang oleh pemilik-pemilik tanah di atas keselamatan harta mereka kerana tanah mereka boleh bertukar milik tanpa disedari. Sehubungan dengan itu, artikel ini dibuat bagi membincangkan kes frod yang berlaku dalam konteks urus niaga tanah di Malaysia dan membuat perbandingan dengan undang-undang tanah Australia serta mengenal pasti apakah jenis-jenis frod yang berlaku dan seterusnya mencadangkan jalan penyelesaian yang difikirkan sesuai bagi menjamin kepentingan dan hak-hak semua pihak yang terlibat.

Katakunci: frod, urus niaga tanah, jenis-jenis frod, cadangan dan penyelesaian, kajian Perbandingan


PRINSIP KEADILAN ASASI DALAM UNDANG-UNDANG BERKAITAN PROSEDUR PERBICARAAN TATATERTIB DI JABATAN POLIS: SUATU ANALISA
Fariza Romli, Nuarrual Hilal Md Dahlan & Rusniah Ahmad
Kolej Undang-Undang, Kerajaan dan Pengajian Antarabangsa
Universiti Utara Malaysia, Sintok, Kedah

ABSTRACT FULL TEXT

Prinsip keadilan asasi adalah merupakan syarat minima dalam membuat keputusan adil dan saksama yang dikenakan oleh undang-undang terhadap orang atau badan bertugas khususnya yang bertindak secara kehakiman, termasuklah tribunal-tribunal dan juga mana-mana Lembaga Tatatertib Jabatan. Tiada sebarang definisi atau penjelasan yang khusus mengenai prinsip keadilan asasi di dalam mana-mana akta atau peraturan yang melibatkan prosedur tatatertib penjawat awam, tetapi prinsip ini diguna pakai dengan meluas dan merupakan syarat bagi menjamin prosedur perbicaraan adil dalam setiap perbicaraan. Pematuhan terhadap prinsip keadilan asasi ini amat penting dan sebarang perlanggaran boleh menyebabkan kes-kes tersebut boleh dirujuk di mahkamah untuk dibuat semakan semula atas keputusan yang diambil. Justeru, artikel ini akan melihat apakah peruntukan-peruntukan mengenai prinsip keadilan asasi yang terdapat di dalam undang-undang yang berkaitan dengan prosedur perbicaraan tatatertib di jabatan polis. Antara isu-isu yang dibincangkan ialah sejauhmana peruntukan-peruntukkan tersebut terpakai dan juga mengenai kekangan dalam pelaksanaan prinsip tersebut. Metodologi yang digunakan adalah berdasarkan kajian perpustakaan berpandukan kepada analisa undang-undang terhadap akta-akta, peraturan-peraturan dan kes undang-undang yang terpakai ke atas Jabatan Polis. Diharap perbincangan dalam artikel ini dapat membantu memantapkan lagi undang-undang mengenai pengurusan tatatertib yang terpakai sekarang khususnya di jabatan polis bagi menjamin agar setiap pegawai yang dituduh berpeluang mendapat satu perbicaraan yang adil dan saksama.

UUM Journal of Legal Studies
College of Law, Government and International Studies
06010 UUM Sintok, Kedah Darul Aman, Malaysia.

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