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UUM Journal of Legal Studies (JLS) Vol. 5, 2014

INTERNET CENSORSHIP BY LAW: A CHALLENGE TO THE CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHT TO FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION IN THAILAND
Jompon Pitaksantayothin*

ABSTRACT FULL TEXT

In Thailand, at present, content on the Internet is subject to a legal regulatory framework. The Ministry of Information and Communication Technology (MICT) takes a leading role in enforcing the Computer-Related Crime Act 2007 to censor content on the Internet which is deemed ‘illegal’. In this article, it is contended that the legal regulation of Internet content which Thailand adopts is problematic in several aspects. This could pose a serious threat to the constitutional right to freedom of expression of Internet users in Thailand.

Keywords: Internet censorship, freedom of expression, Thailand.


PENGIKLANAN BIDANG KEPAKARAN PEGUAM: KEPERLUANNYA DALAM MEMBANTU BAKAL KLIEN MEMILIH PEGUAM
Harlina Mohamed On*

ABSTRACT FULL TEXT

Dalam konteks pengiklanan oleh peguam, menjadi kewajipan profesion guaman untuk mendidik masyarakat, khususnya mereka yang berpendapatan sederhana dan rendah, mengenai kewujudan dan kesediaan perkhidmatan guaman dalam membantu mereka menyelesaikan sesuatu masalah perundangan. Lantaran itu, iklan mengenai perkhidmatan guaman wajar mengandungi maklumat yang relevan untuk diketahui umum. Walau bagaimanapun, melihat kepada kaedah publisiti yang mengawal profesion guaman Malaysia, maklumat yang boleh diiklankan sebahagian besarnya terbatas kepada biodata peguam serta butiran mengenai firma dan rakan kongsi peguam. Maklumat lain yang lebih penting untuk diketahui awam, yang boleh membantu mereka untuk membandingkan perkhidmatan yang wujud di pasaran, serta memilih perkhidmatan peguam mana yang bersesuaian dengan keperluannya, tidak boleh diiklankan. Salah satunya ialah maklumat mengenai bidang kepakaran peguam. Berdasarkan metod analisis kandungan, kertas kerja ini membincangkan tentang sekatan untuk mengiklankan bidang kepakaran seperti yang terkandung dalam kaedah publisiti yang mengawal profesion guaman Malaysia, serta membuat perbandingan dengan peraturan yang dikuatkuasakan di Amerika Syarikat, United Kingdom (England & Wales) dan Australia (New South Wales). Berdasarkan pensampelan mudah, soal selidik untuk meninjau persepsi awam dan peguam berhubung isu ini turut diedarkan dan dapatannya dipersembahkan secara deskriptif. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahawa majoriti pihak peguam dan awam mempunyai persepsi bahawa maklumat mengenai bidang kepakaran adalah maklumat yang sesuai untuk diiklankan oleh peguam.


A CRITICAL LEGAL ANALYSIS ON THE MINIMUM AGE OF CRIMINAL RESPONSIBILITY IN THE NEW ISLAMIC PUNISHMENT ACT OF IRAN
Shohreh Mousavi,1 Jal Zabdi Mohd Yusoff, Farah Nini Dusuki and Behnam Rastegari

ABSTRACT FULL TEXT

The provision for a minimum age of criminal responsibility (MACR) is stated in a number of international children’s rights instruments. The preamble of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) states that a child, by reason of his physical, mental and emotional immaturity is in need of special safeguards, care and assistance. Despite remarkable improvements in a number of provisions, an examination of the Iran’s laws and regulations reveal that the provision of MACR is currently in conflict with the international instruments particularly the UNCRC. This is despite the fact that Iran is a State Party of the UNCRC since. Furthermore, the Iranian Civil Code expressly provide that the government is to implement the UNCRC provisions as an international treaty. This article critically examines the position of the MACR and punishments of children in the new Islamic Punishment Act of Iran (2013) based on the four Islamic categories of punishments namely Hadd, Qisas, Diya and Ta’zir as enshrined in the new Act. The current article places emphasis on the examination of the issue of MACR in Iran and how effectively it is addressed by the new Act. The nature of this research is doctrinal by examining the new Act of Iran 2013 with a critical legal overview on the Articles relating to children and their impact on the rights of children. Furthermore, it compares the relevant Articles on MACR and punishments of the new Act with the previous abolished Act and the international standards. The purpose is to highlight both the limitations and advancements of the new Act. In the final analysis, this article concludes that despite the improvements in the field of children’s rights in the new Act, it still poses potential risks for the rights of the children in Iran.


OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS IN MINING AND MANUFACTURING SECTOR: AN ANALYSIS ON DISEASE CLAIMS IN MALAYSIA
Che Thalbi Md. Ismail *

ABSTRACT FULL TEXT

This paper examines the law regulating occupational illnesses or diseases suffered by workers at the work place. Its main focus is on the claims by workers to SOCSO for illness suffered or diseases contracted whilst performing their work or in the course of their employment. The main statute for compensation claim is Employees Social Security Act 1969 and the discussion will be made on the problem arising under section 28(1) and 28(4) of the 1969 Act. The issue involved is in establishing whether a correlation exists between the disease and the work performed by the workers. Such an issue could be the hindrance towards the success of such workers’ claims. Hence, this paper will explore the issue by analyzing statistics and decided court cases. The analysis of the court cases revealed that most of the claims were turned down when the claimants failed to show that the injury or death were the result of the employment. The author also suggests an alternative to have a scheduled and monitored occupational health check-up on the workers’ health to ensure whether any health problems occurs is due to the work.


TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER IN INDONESIA : LEGAL PERSPECTIVE1
Abd Thalib*

ABSTRACT FULL TEXT

This study aimed to analyses technology transfer in Indonesia. As we have indicated, Indonesian Patents Law, No. 14 of 2001, have failed to create technology transfer for Indonesia. Even though the transfer of technology is strongly campaigned as a principal means of relieving world poverty, there is no reliable and credible evidence that shows a significant correlation between technology transfer under the patent regime and the collective mastery of a nation to access information, knowledge and technology (INT) effectively in order to improve the quality of people’s lives.

Kajian ini bertujuan untuk membahas pemindahan teknologi di Indonesia. Seperti yang telah kita lihat, ketentuan Paten No. 14 Tahun 2001 ini, telah gagal melakukan pemindahan teknologi terhadap Indonesia. Sekalipun pemindahan teknologi adalah sangat kuat diserukan sebagai suatu prinsip, dengan tujuan utama mengurangi kemiskinan dunia, tidak dapat dipercayai dan tidak ada bukti yang menunjukkan satu kaitan yang kuat antara pemindahan teknologi di bawah aturan paten dan penguasaan bersama dari suatu bangsa untuk mendapatkan informasi, pengetahuan dan teknologi efektif guna meningkatkan kualitas dari kehidupan rakyat.

Keywords: Sistem paten, pemindahan teknologi.


SPECIAL MEASURES’ APPLICATIONS FOR VICTIMS AND VULNERABLE AND INTIMIDATED WITNESSES IN MALAYSIA: NEW FRONTIERS TO RIGHT TO A FAIR TRIAL?
Abidah Abdul Ghafar*

ABSTRACT FULL TEXT

Special treatment for victims and vulnerable and intimidated witnesses (VIWs) in a criminal process has developed over time in Western countries. The development of rights of victims’ and VIWs and awareness on their needs and interests in pre-trial process and court proceedings has initiated the use of special measures’ application. In England and Wales, some measures to lessen stress and trauma of such witnesses undergoing a criminal process were introduced into the legislations. Yet, as many other Asian countries, Malaysia developed her victims’ policy only in 1990s and issues relating to the protection of VIWs were raised within the criminal justice system just recently. The tendency to put the standpoint into practice in the Malaysian legal system is demonstrated in the establishment of the Evidence of Child Witness Act 2007 (ECWA 2007) and the amendment of Section 272B of the Criminal Procedure Code. On the other hand, it is also arguable that special measures’ applications for victims and VIWs will erode the right of defendants to a fair trial. This article aims at evaluating the current position of victims’ and VIWs’ rights and legal protection in the Malaysian criminal justice process. It elaborates on the rights of victims and other VIWs to special measures’ applications in pre-trial process and court proceedings. Special measures such as live TV-link, screens, removal of formal attire, intermediaries and visual aids communication are potential to accommodate victims’ and VIWs to give testimony in court. The use of video-recorded evidence is also evaluated as one of the means to facilitate traumatized victims and VIWs to give evidence and testimony. The possibility to enhance the use of special measures’ applications as one of the ways to advocate the right to a fair trial of victims and VIWs, without eroding the rights of the defendants, is also highlighted in this article.

Keywords: Vulnerable, intimidated, special measures.


REFUGEE CHILDREN UNDER THE MALAYSIAN LEGAL FRAMEWORK
Dina Imam Supaat*

ABSTRACT FULL TEXT

This study will delve into the Malaysian legal framework for the protection of refugee children; their legal status under the law; and guarantee to their rights. It will first identify the general protection under various Malaysian statutes relevant to refugee children. Discussion will continue to emphasise on any adverse effect of the legal provisions on refugee children. This will then followed by analysing Malaysia’s international commitment and obligation relating to children in general with some reference to refugee children. Discussion will touch on the role and mandate of the United Nation’s High Commissioner for Refugee’s (UNHCR) office, to protect refugee, Malaysia’s commitment as a state party to the United Nation Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) and it’s refusal to ratify the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugee (CRSR). Other dimension of this paper is the highlight of the adverse effects of inconsistent domestic legal provisions on the enjoyment of rights by refugee children. Finding of this study will show the extent of protection offered to refugee children under domestic laws and the reasons why Malaysia should fulfill its international obligation towards refugee children and further effort that must be initiated to ensure compliance to protection under international law.

Keywords: Refugee children, Malaysian law, rights of the child.


FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLE OF INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHT LAW-BASIS FOR THE RIGHT TO LIFE OF THE UNBORN CHILD
Ganiat Mobolaji Olatokun* and Rusniah Ahmad1

ABSTRACT FULL TEXT

The contention that an unborn child has the right to life has been visited with several oppositions from all works of life, all over the world. Most people do not accept the view that an unborn child possesses any form of human right which is to be protected because, that child is yet to be born into the world. It is however an established fact that, the fundamental principle of international human right instrument is to uphold the dignity and sanctity of all human persons, whether born or unborn. This shows that international human right instruments are founded on the basis of natural law. This study set out to investigate the core principle of international human right law. By so doing, the actual values and tenents of international human right law will be revealed. This is a doctrinal research, wherein the authors set out on a fact finding mission using selected articles, books and periodicals to bring out the objective of the study. At the end of the exercise, it was revealed that no international human right law will perpetrate a principle in opposition to natural law. This being the case, the unborn child, like any other living being is vested with the inalienable right to life.

Keywords: Natural law, international human right law, right to life, unborn child.


KAJIAN KES TAN SRI ABDUL KHALID IBRAHIM LWN BANK ISLAM (M) BERHAD MENGENAI ISU PENENTUAN KEPUTUSAN OLEH MAHKAMAH ATAU MAJLIS PENASIHAT SHARIAH DALAM HAL-HAL KEWANGAN DAN PERBANKAN ISLAM
Muhammad Hafiz Badarulzaman*

ABSTRACT FULL TEXT

Majlis Penasihat Shariah (SAC) telah ditubuhkan di bawah Bank Negara Malaysia bagi tujuan menyelaras prinsip-prinsip Islam di dalam isu-isu kewangan dan merupakan badan rujukan utama di dalam kes-kes berkaitan kewangan Islam di dalam negara. Walaubagaimanapun, pindaan Akta Bank Negara Malaysia 2009 telah memberi kesan kepada keputusan SAC berkaitan isu kewangan Islam apabila SAC dapat mengikat mahkamah sivil untuk mengikutnya di dalam keputusan sesuatu kes. Berikutan masalah ini, kuasa SAC telah dilihat bertentangan dengan semangat perlembagaan melalui hak kesamarataan dan hak mahkamah untuk membuat keputusan tanpa terikat dengan mana-mana badan. Pindaan yang dibuat di dalam Akta Bank Negara Malaysia 2009 melalui beberapa peruntukan juga dianggap sebagai bertentangan dengan perlembagaan (unconstitutional). Kertas kerja ini akan menggunakan kaedah kajian perbandingan (comparative study) yang melibatkan perbandingan beberapa akta dan peruntukan undang-undang serta perlembagaan persekutuan. Kertas kerja ini juga mencadangkan agar kedudukan SAC diperkemaskan melalui kewujudan akta baru iaitu Akta Perkhidmatan Kewangan Islam 2013 (IFSA) dan peranan SAC dapat diperkukuhkan demi kemaslahatan perbankan dan kewangan Islam.

Kata kunci: Majlis Penasihat Shariah (SAC), Institusi Perbankan dan Kewangan Islam, Bank Negara Malaysia, Undang-Undang Perlembagaan

UUM Journal of Legal Studies
College of Law, Government and International Studies
06010 UUM Sintok, Kedah Darul Aman, Malaysia.

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