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UUM Journal of Legal Studies (UUMJLS) Vol. 10(1), January 2019

Abdulahi Sani, Che Thalbi Md. Ismail & Aspalela A. Rahman
 
Yanti Ahmad Shafiee
 
Shamsuddeen Magaji, Nurli Yaacob & Zuryati Mohamed Yusoff
 
Zukiferee Ibrahim & Abdul Majid Tahir Mohamed
 
Siti Zaharah Jamaluddin, Mohammad Abu Taher & Ng Seng Yi
 
Rosmawani Che Hashim
 
Mohammad Azam Hussain
 
Nor Anita Abdullah
 
Algoere Turki Naif S & Hasani Mohd Ali
 

AN EXAMINATION OF THE ROLE OF COURTS IN ENSURING COMPLIANCE WITH THE CONSTITUTIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR IMPEACHMENT IN NIGERIA
1Abdulahi Sani, 2Che Thalbi Md. Ismail & 3Aspalela A. Rahman
1,2,3School of Law, College of Law, Government and International Studies, Universiti Utara Malaysia
1Faculty of Law, Bayero University, Kano Nigeria
abuabdallah055@gmail.com;chet1048@uum.edu.my; salbiismail61@gmail.com; lella@uum.edu.my
 
Abstract: The constitution confers on the legislative arm of government impeachment power and prescribes when and how it should be exercised. Disputes arising from the exercise of this power are submitted to the courts for adjudication in line with their inherent powers. The issue of compliance with these constitutional requirements is a cause for concern as most of the impeachment proceedings conducted so far in Nigeria had been challenged in court for noncompliance. The question is, could this role played by the Nigerian courts ensure compliance? The objective of this paper is, therefore, to determine whether the courts could ensure compliance with the constitutional requirement for impeachment. In order to achieve the objective of this paper, doctrinal methodology is used whereby relevant materials were analyzed and conclusion made. The result showed that the role played by the courts cannot ensure compliance with the constitutional requirements because the courts only intervene after the conclusion of the exercise due to disrespect to court orders from the legislature. This is largely due to lack of specific role conferred on the courts in impeachment proceedings. It is, therefore, recommended that the constitution be amended to vest on the Supreme Court the specific role of ensuring that all the constitutional requirements for impeachment have been duly complied with before a public officer is removed.

Keywords: Islamic Law, Malaysian Law, Environmental Conservation, Water Pollution.
 
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COMPLIANCE TO INTERNATIONAL TRADE RULES: THE CASE OF MALAYSIA’S ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION MEASURES
Yanti Ahmad Shafiee
School of Law, College of Law, Government and International Studies, Universiti Utara Malaysia
Labuan Faculty of International Finance, Universiti Malaysia Sabah
yanti@ums.edu.my
 
Abstract: An environmental protection measure will have an effect on international trade when it affects market access of goods and services. The objectives of this paper are to explore the international trade rules that need to be complied by the government of Malaysia with respect to invoking environmental protection measures and secondly, to look into the government’s compliance with international trade rules when invoking such measures. The international trade rules that need to be complied in this study are the World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). Malaysia’s environmental protection measures can be found in Malaysia’s domestic laws such as the Plant Quarantine Act 1976, Food Act 1983, Fisheries Act 1985 and national policies. The methodology employed in this study was by analyzing WTO and GATT agreements and decisions by the Dispute Settlement Bodies of the WTO in international dispute cases and also by analyzing Malaysia’s regulations in order to find out how far the government has complied with these international trade rules. The significance of this study is to recognize Malaysia’s efforts in dealing with international trade rules when invoking environmental protection measures.

Keywords: International economic law, World trade organization, General agreement on tariffs and trade, Environmental protection measures, Malaysia
 
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SHAREHOLDER PARTICIPATION IN ANNUAL GENERAL MEETINGS UNDER NIGERIAN CORPORATE LAW: PHILOSOPHY, PRACTICE AND THE ROLE OF SHAREHOLDER ASSOCIATIONS
1Shamsuddeen Magaji, 2Nurli Yaacob & 3Zuryati Mohamed Yusoff
1,2,3School of Law, College of Law, Government and International Studies, Universiti Utara Malaysia
1Department of Islamic Law, Faculty of Law, Bauchi State University, Gadau, Bauchi State, Nigeria
deeneemagaji@gmail.com; nurli@uum.edu.my; zuryati@uum.edu.my
 
Abstract: Shareholders and board of directors in an annual general meeting (AGM) are the two organs of a company. Shareholders are legally empowered to participate in the AGM to meet directors and know about the performance of the company. Despite various philosophies (theories) and legal provisions on shareholder participation in AGMs, shareholders are still facing some challenges. Moreover, available literature in this area is limited in Nigeria. Therefore, this study seeks to examine various philosophies (theories), the law, cases and opinions of experts on shareholder participation, practices and the role of shareholder associations in protecting the rights of shareholders. The study adopted two methods of data collection. The first method was doctrinal legal research (library based) which mainly concerned statutory provisions under the Companies and Allied Matters Act 1990 (CAMA) and decisions of the court. The second method of data collection consisted of qualitative interviews with seventeen respondents regarding the theories, practices and role of shareholder associations in protecting the rights of shareholder participation in AGMs. The findings showed that shareholder participation can be supported by various theories including corporate personality theory; agency theory; contract theory; shareholder primacy; and corporate governance. The finding equally indicated that shareholders in Nigeria received notices of AGMs late, due to postal inefficiency and lack of recognition of ICT under the CAMA. Similarly, both regulators and shareholder associations have not done enough to protect shareholders and to improve their participation in AGMs. In view of this, there is a need for proactive measures to improve the participation of shareholders in AGMs. This is by amending the CAMA to incorporate provisions that will facilitate the effective service of notices of AGMs. Similarly, shareholder associations and regulators must take the responsibility of enlightening shareholders on their right of participation as well as how to enforce their rights in AGMs.

Keywords: Shareholders, Annual general meeting, Shareholder associations

Abstrak: Saham dan lembaga pengarah merupakan organ penting dalam sebuah syarikat. Pemegang saham berhak untuk menyertai mesyuarat agung tahunan (dirujuk sebagai AGM) di mana ia membolehkan pemegang saham berpeluang bertemu dengan lembaga pengarah dan mengambil tahu perkembangan dan prestasi syarikat. Meskipun terdapat pelbagai teori dan peruntukan undang-undang berkenaan penyertaan pemegang saham semasa AGM, pemegang saham masih menghadapi pelbagai cabaran dalam aspek ini. Di Nigeria, kajian yang telah dijalankan bagi isu ini adalah minima. Atas asas ini, kertas kajian ini dimulakan bagi mengkaji pelbagai falsafah/teori; peruntukan undang-undang; kes-kes yang telah diputuskan; dan padangan pakar berkenaan penyertaan pemegang saham. Untuk tujuan itu, kajian ini mengguna pakai kaedah doktrinal dan sosio undang-undang untuk mencapai objektif kajian. Kaedah pertama iaitu kaedah doktrinal tertumpu kepada penelitian terhadap peruntukan undang-undang dibawah CAMA 1990 dan kes-kes yang telah diputuskan oleh Mahkamah. Kaedah kedua yang digunapakai merupakan kaedah sosio undang-undang yang meliputi sebanyak tujuh belas sesi temu ramah dalam format semi berstruktur yang berkisar mengenai teori, amalan dan fungsi persatuan pemegang saham dalam penyertaan semasa AGM. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahawa penyertaan pemegang saham disokong oleh pelbagai falsafah merangkumi personaliti korporat; teori agensi; teori kontrak; keutamaan kedudukan pemegang saham;dan tadbir urus korporat. Dapatan kajian ini juga memperlihatkan bahawa terdapat kelewatan menerima notis AGM oleh pemegang saham di Nigeria, berpunca dari perkhidmatan pos yang tidak efektif dan kurangnya pengikitirafan pemakaian teknologi di bawah CAMA 1990. Penguatkuasa undang-undang dan persatuan pemegang saham juga gagal menitikberatkan hak pemegang saham serta menambahbaik penyertaan pemegang saham semasa AGM. Justeru, terbit keperluan mendesak untuk mengambil langkah-langkah proaktif bagi menambahbaik penyertaan pemegang saham semasa AGM, antara lainnya, dengan meminda CAMA untuk memasukkan peruntukan bagi penyerahan notis AGM yang efektif. Selain itu, persatuan pemegang saham dan penguatkuasa undang-undang hendaklah mengambil inisiatif sewajarnya dengan mewar-warkan dan memberi kesedaran kepada pemegang saham akan haknya dalam penyertaan AGM.

Kata Kunci: Pemegang Saham, Mesyuarat Agung Tahunan, Persatuan Pemegang Saham
 
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THE RIGHT TO ORAL HEARING IN DISCIPLINARY PROCEEDINGS AGAINST PUBLIC SERVANTS: A MALAYSIAN PERSPECTIVE
Zukiferee Ibrahim & Abdul Majid Tahir Mohamed
Faculty of Law and International Relation Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Malaysia
zukifereeibrahim@gmail.com; amtmajid@unisza.edu.my
 
Abstract: The decisions of disciplinary authorities in disciplinary proceedings continue to be judicially reviewed on the grounds of their failure to grant an oral hearing to affected public servants albeit there is a well-established principle by the Privy Council in Najar Singh’s case since 1976. Such failure may implicate the deliverance of justice, and affect the reputation and goodwill of the Malaysian government as the major employer in the nation. The constitutional protection of a reasonable opportunity of being heard to public servants under Article 135(2) in the case of dismissal and reduction of rank should be interpreted in the light of the fundamental right to life as enshrined in the Federal Constitution. The purpose of this article is to examine the approaches of the court in determining the right to an oral hearing in disciplinary proceedings against public servants; and whether the administrative decisions of the disciplinary authorities should be subject to judicial review or not. This paper forwarded a submission that the court should adopt a liberal approach in determining the right to an oral hearing in disciplinary proceedings against public servants.
Keywords: Natural justice, Right to an oral hearing, Disciplinary proceedings, Public servants, Judicial review.
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INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS IN A HIGH-INCOME NATION: IS MALAYSIA READY?
1Siti Zaharah Jamaluddin, 2Mohammad Abu Taher & 3Ng Seng Yi
1Faculty of Law, Multimedia University, Melaka, Malaysia
2Dept. of Law & Justice, Southeast University, Dhaka, Bangladesh
3Faculty of Law, University of Malaya, Malaysia
2Corresponding author : taherlaw16@gmail.com
 
Abstract: Industrial relations is one of the most delicate and complex issues in a modern industrial society. Industrial progress is well-nigh impossible without the cooperation of the labour force and the harmonious relationship between employers and employees. Therefore, it is in the interest of all to create and maintain the good relationship between employers and employees. Malaysia, as one of the South East Asian countries, hopes to be a high-income nation by 2024. In order to achieve the status of high income nation, the government of Malaysia has introduced the Economic Transformation Programme (ETP). ETP will help Malaysia to triple its Gross National Income (GNI) from RM 660 billion in 2009 to RM 1.7 trillion in 2020. The status of high income nation is said to be achieved, among others, via innovation, creativity, higher productivity, new technology and the development of a multi-skilled and highly skilled workforce as well as healthy industrial relations. As such, in underlining industrial relations in a high-income nation, this article is an attempt to examine the role of the Malaysian industrial relations of today. It will also portray whether changes are required in Malaysian industrial relations in order to be relevant in a high-income nation.
Keywords: Employer, High-income nation, Industrial relations, Trade union.
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MISTAKE IN AN ELECTRONIC ADVERTISEMENT: LEGAL IMPLICATION
Rosmawani Che Hashim
Department of Business Strategy and Policy, University of Malaya, Malaysia
wanie285@um.edu.my
 
Abstract: It is fundamental that the content of the advertisement must be free from any disputable errors. Otherwise; the owner of the advertisement shall be liable for customers’ claims in regard to its content. Obviously, advertisements, be it traditional or online are exposed to legal repercussion should it fails to comply with the terms as per advertised. This paper discusses the legal implications of such advertisement from a contract law perspective focusing on an electronic advertisement containing price errors. It refers to the area of mistake in contract law and highlights the common law and equitable approaches in dealing with this issue. In addition, it focuses on the Malaysian legal provisions pertaining to mistake in contract law and also the issues of unfair contract terms. This paper adopts content analysis method where the materials used were largely library-based consisting of primary and secondary data. The primary data was gathered from case-law to explain how the legal principles are applied. English cases are the major references considering their high volume of cases on contractual issues. The secondary data was based on published materials, such as textbooks, journal articles, online databases and the Internet. For analysis, this paper applied a combination method of data analysis, namely, descriptive, critical and comparative approaches. The judges’ statements in each case were examined carefully; highlighted loopholes, followed by rational justifications. The findings have established that notwithstanding the common law principle which recognises mistake as a vitiating factor in contract, the application of mistake as a defence in an advertisement containing price error demonstrates divergent approaches by the courts. In addition, a review on the Malaysian legal framework pertaining to this issue reveals that due protection needs to be enhanced in order to warrant justice shall be served to a customer who has an unequal bargain.
 
Keywords: Contract; Mistake; Electronic advertisement, Unfair contract terms.
 
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KONSEP KEPERLUAN KEIZINAN DARIPADA WALI DALAM PERNIKAHAN WANITA BERSTATUS ANAK DARA MENURUT FIQH MUNAKAHAT
Mohammad Azam Hussain
School of Law, College of Law, Government and International Studies, Universiti Utara Malaysia
hmazam@uum.edu.my
 
Abstrak:Fuqaha berbeza pendapat akan keperluan keizinan wali dalam sesuatu akad pernikahan. Persoalan timbul, apakah keizinan daripada wali itu diperlukan dalam pernikahan? Ataupun seseorang perempuan itu berhak untuk menikahkan dirinya sendiri. Artikel ini membincangkan konsep perwalian dari perspektif fiqh melibatkan definisi, dalil syarak, syarat-syarat dan lain-lain yang berkaitan. Berdasarkan karya-karya fiqh klasik, kaedah analisis kandungan dan perbandingan digunakan bagi melihat sejauh mana berlaku perbezaan pandangan antara fuqaha dalam hal ini. Kajian mendapati bahawa, majoriti fuqaha berpandangan bahawa keizinan wali merupakan syarat kepada kesahihan sesuatu akad pernikahan bagi perempuan berstatus anak dara. Dalam kes perempuan berstatus janda, keizinan daripadanya juga diperlukan.
Kata kunci: Wali, Wali mujbir, Fiqh munakahat, Anak dara, Janda.
Abstract: Muslim jurists have different views on the requirement of a wali’s consent in a marriage. A question arises, is the consent of the wali required in marriage? Or, has a woman the right to marry herself off? This article discusses the concept of wali from the fiqh perspective which involves definition, proof according to Islamic religious law, conditions and other related matters. Based on clasical fiqh literature, content analysis and comparison methods were used to determine to what extent views among Muslim jurists differed in this regard. The findings showed that the majority of Muslim jurists viewed that consent from the wali is the condition for the validity of marriage in the case of women who are virgins. Consent from the wali is also required in the case of women who are widows.
Keywords: Wali, Wali mujbir, Fiqh munakahat, Virgin, Widow.
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KEPELBAGAIAN DEFINISI DAN PENGGUNAAN SENJATA MENURUT PERSPEKTIF UNDANG­UNDANG DI MALAYSIA
Nor Anita Abdullah
School of Law, College of Law, Government and International Studies, Universiti Utara Malaysia
noranita@uum.edu.my
 
Abstrak: Pistol, senjata api, pisau, grenad, peluru berpandu, rifel adalah antara bentuk senjata fizikal yang mungkin dikenali orang ramai. Meskipun begitu, perkembangan dalam bidang sains dan teknologi serta pertumbuhan yang luar biasa dalam pembangunan manusia telah membawa kepada kemajuan pengetahuan yang meluas dan lebih baik dalam kalangan pakar untuk menghasilkan senjata moden yang lebih berkesan pada masa akan datang. Pada masa kini, senjata fizikal tidak lagi dieksploitasi untuk mengakibatkan kemusnahan dan kerosakan. Sebaliknya, bahan kimia, biologi, radiologi dan letupan nuklear (CBRNE) digunakan untuk tujuan mewujudkan ketakutan yang maksimum, kematian dan kemusnahan orang ramai dan masyarakat. Pada masa yang sama, persepsi orang ramai terhadap senjata juga akan berubah sekiranya mereka memiliki pengetahuan tentang pelbagai senjata dan cara-cara penggunaannya. Oleh itu, artikel ini bertujuan mendefinisikan senjata yang berbentuk konvensional dan bukan konvensional melalui cara penggunaannya dengan merujuk kepada statut-statut yang relevan dan sedia ada di Malaysia. Terdapat juga usaha untuk membincangkan berbagai-bagai jenis senjata melalui kepelbagaian penggunaannya bagi setiap jenis senjata.
Kata kunci: Senjata konvensional, Senjata bukan konvensional, Senjata pemusnah besar-besaran.
 
Abstract: Pistols, guns, firearms, knives, grenades, missiles, rifles are among some of the physical weapons most people may be familiar with. Despite this, advances in science and technology and the remarkable growth in human development have led to an extensive and improved understanding among experts to produce more effective modern weapons in the future. Nowadays, physical weapons are no longer being exploited to inflict destruction and damage. Instead chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear explosions (CBRNE) are used with the intention of creating maximum fear, death and destruction to the masses and society. At the same time, people’s perception of weapons will also change if they have knowledge of the variety of weapons and their uses. Therefore, this article intends to define conventional and non-conventional weapons by means of their uses with reference to relevant and existing statutes in Malaysia. There is also an attempt to discuss the various types of weapons by looking into the variety of use for each type.
Keywords: Conventional weapon, Non-conventional weapon, Weapon of mass destruction.
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CORPORATE GOVERNANCE DEVELOPMENTS IN THE SAUDI ARABIA AND MALAYSIA
Algoere Turki Naif S & 1Hasani Mohd Ali
Faculty of Law, The National University of Malaysia
1Correspondingauthor: hmohdali@ukm.edu.my
 
ABSTRACT: In the past few years, there has been an increasing concern over the discrepancy of standards of the corporate governance amongst the developed and the developing countries since they affect their competitive advantages economically. In 2017, Saudi Arabia and Malaysia have amended their codes on corporate governance, in order to promote ethical behaviour, transparency, accountability and investor stewardship. In this paper, the researchers analyse the important features of these new codes of Saudi Arabia and Malaysia. They use a comparative approach to identify the advantages and limitations and also to determine areas for improvement. This paper finds that several transformations were already taking place in both jurisdictions. However, there are many areas that require continuous development, especially those related to the independence of the board, gender diversity problems, and impartiality in the decisionmaking process. The researchers suggest that many recommendations regarding the manner in which the two countries can address the loopholes and thereafter, improve their corporate governance codes in order to be on a par with international standards.
 
Keywords: Corporate governance, Investments, Directors’ duties, Gender issues.
 
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UUM Journal of Legal Studies
College of Law, Government and International Studies
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