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UUM Journal of Legal Studies (UUMJLS) Vol. 12(1), Jan 2021

Rokiah Kadir, Raihanah Abdullah, Safiek Mokhlis
Rushmila Bintay Rafique & A. Vijayalakshmi Venugopal
Nur Khalidah Dahlan, Muhamad Helmi Md. Said & Ramalinggam Rajamanickam
Rahmanisa Purnamasari Faujura, Elisatris Gultom & Sudjana
Osama Ismail Mohammad Amayreh, Izura Masdina Mohamad Zakri, Pardis Moslemzadeh Tehrani & Yousef Mohammad Shandi
Muhamad Helmi Muhamad Khair, Haswira Nor Mohamad Hashim & Maria Anagnostopoulou
Kamilah Wati Mohd, Fareed Mohd Hassan, Intan Nadia Ghulam Khan & Izawati Wook

1Rokiah Kadir, 2Raihanah Abdullah, 3Safiek Mokhlis
1&3Faculty of Business, Economics and Social Development, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Malaysia
2Academy of Islamic Studies, Universiti of Malaya Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
1Corresponding author: rokiah@umt.edu.my
Custody decisions are tailored to the circumstances of each case based on related principles with protection of child welfare as courts’ paramount consideration. This paper seeks to understand custody issue from quantitative viewpoint through a conceptual model and examines how child custody principles have influenced loss decisions for mothers. The methodology used was content analysis and Chi-Square correlation, with usable data provided by 47 cases decided in Malaysia between 1987 and 2017 based on Act 303. Coding instrument and conceptual framework were developed with items covering presumption of maternal custody, custodian qualification and loss of rights, child’s and mother’s wishes. The findings revealed that mothers were less likely to lose custody cases and when they did their defeats were strongly influenced by factors relating to children’s preference and status quo arrangement. The results contribute to an understanding of how mothers can lose custody of their children and clarify whether some of the independent variables are used more regularly and are more predictive of the loss decisions than the others.
Keywords: Child custody, Act 303, child preference, custodian qualification, loss of rights.

1Rushmila Bintay Rafique & A. Vijayalakshmi Venugopal
Faculty of Business & Law, Taylor’s University, Malaysia
1Corresponding author: rushmila93@hotmail.com
This article attempts to analyse the issue of fraud in letters of credit (LC) transactions, also known as documentary credits. There are numerous reported cases of fraud in LC transactions, which remain a continuing risk. The UCP 600 is a popular standard of practice for banks, which confirms that banks must honour payment to the seller upon full compliance with the documentary credit requirements. Such payments have been made despite being presented with falsified documents or substandard goods being delivered. It might not be realistic to expect that the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) can create global standards relating documentary credits, which cover the practicalities of the existing system and relevant legalities applicable to the letter of credit system in international trading. Each party involved may have a responsibility to take some preventive measures to mitigate the risk of fraud. The doctrinal method is used to conduct this study because it involves an in-depth analysis of the gap within the Malaysian system and the strategies that maybe be adopted to overcome the risks associated with LC fraud. Findings reveal that LC documents can be easily falsified, and the occurrence of LC fraud is not uncommon in Malaysia. However, given the lack of literature it has not been highlighted in the past couple of years. The primary focus of this article is to suggest preventive measures that the respective parties could take to protect themselves from fraudulent dealings involving LCs.
Keywords: Letters of Credit (LC); Fraud; UCP 600; Malaysia; Preventive Measures.


1Nur Khalidah Dahlan, Muhamad Helmi Md. Said & Ramalinggam Rajamanickam
Faculty of Law, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia
1Corresponding author: nurkhalidahdahlan@ukm.edu.my
The relationship between parties in corporate world is essential in order to addressing business disagreements. Where it is focusing on the language of business contract per se. Despite various dispute solutions and legal provisions on corporate, company and shareholder rights, all the parties concern are still facing some challenges. Mediation method is one of the alternative dispute resolutions for those who seeks justice without undergo the court proceeding. It is a swift and inexpensive form of dispute resolution. Mediator’s role is to facilitate the disputing parties, and utilizes both joint and private sessions to assist them to achieve consensus. In view of the economic interest, and with a vision to maintain their business relation, a private settlement is preferred between them. This study is using the doctrinal and comparative research methods. In which, this study is comparing the pertinent literature on jurisdiction of the court and Mediation Bodies in terms of Corporate / Company / Shareholders. The discoveries of this study are vital in describing the pros and cons of mediation practices and how it reflects justice to the Malaysian society.
Keywords: Mediation, AIAC, Mediation Act 2012, Corporate.


1Rahmanisa Purnamasari Faujura, Elisatris Gultom & Sudjana
Faculty of Law, University of Padjadjaran Bandung, Indonesia
1Corresponding author: rahmanisaa@gmail.com
It is a common knowledge that technology development shall be in line with the development of a nation. This fact is raising the need of developing countries as Indonesia to maximize potential in the field of technology. However, it is not easy as it sounds, there are many obstacles for a country to develop its potential in technology, notably for the expert in the relevant country to master the necessary skills. Due to this limitation, many countries are beginning to fill-in the gap by registering license of foreign patent. It is expected that the use of foreign patent will replace the higher cost and longer time needed in developing local technology in the developing countries. Unfortunately, the use of foreign patent license does not itself automatically enhance one’s ability to master the necessary skills. Many cases where developing countries were deceived by the ‘grant-back’ clause attached to the foreign patent license. The licensee’s position is consequently considered has lower than of the licensor, which in its turn may rise monopoly practice and unfair business competition. This study is conducted with the purpose to formulate an effective technology transfer through the licensing of foreign patent that can refrain from the repetition of monopoly practice and unfair business competition, according to the TRIPs signed by WTO and the positive law in Indonesia. This study is using juridical-normative approach as the methodology of research, it also use analytical approach through the Law Number 13 of 2016 concerning Patent; Law Number 5 of 1999 concerning Prohibition of the Monopoly Practice and Unfair Business Competition as well as the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights signed by the World Trade Organization, with respect to the license agreement of the foreign patent. Based on the issue as established previously in this journal, the expected outcome of increased information dissemination towards countries using patent licensing agreement in technology and information development related to any matter in intellectual property specifically in licensing agreement, which has higher possibility for Monopolistic Practices and Unfair Business Competition. Therefore, shows that in principle in order to prevent the licensing of foreign patent to lead onto the monopoly practice and unfair business competition, a country must establish a controlling entity to supervise the execution of the foreign patent and at the same time, enacting harmonious rules and regulations with such supervision.
Keywords: Technology transfer, license of foreign patent, monopoly practice and unfair business competition.

1Farahdilah Ghazali, 2Abdul Haseeb Ansari & 3Ridoan Karim
1Institute of Oceanography and Environment, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Malaysia
2Ahmad Ibrahim Kulliyyah of Laws, International Islamic University Malaysia
3Department of Business Law and Taxation, School of Business, Monash University, Malaysia
1Corresponding author: farahdilah.g@umt.edu.my
Climate change has always been an agenda for the international community, individually and collectively, due to global warming and unusual weather conditions. The International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) believes that the adequate deployment of clean energy can achieve the targets of the Paris Climate Change Agreement. Many countries have shown their commitment to decrease their carbon emission levels substantially, and they have done so by resorting to renewable energy sources. Renewable energy generation opens a viable door for climate change mitigation efforts. Both Malaysia and India are committed to fulfilling their obligation under the Paris Agreement. This comparative study evaluates the laws and policies related to renewable energy in Malaysia and India, as these countries progress towards their commitments under the Climate Change Convention (UNFCCC). This study operates under the comparative qualitative methodological framework and utilises secondary sources for analysis. Based on the comparative expositions, Malaysia can learn measures adopted by India to accelerate renewable energy development as well as to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, which will prove beneficial to the country as well as in order to comply with international conventions and agreements.
Keywords: Renewable Energy, Law, Policies, Climate change, Sustainable development.

1Osama Ismail Mohammad Amayreh, 2Izura Masdina Mohamad Zakri, 3Pardis Moslemzadeh Tehrani & 4Yousef Mohammad Shandi
1,2&3Faculty of Law, University of Malaya, Malaysia
4Faculty of Law, Arab American University, Palestine
1Corresponding author: adv-osama@outlook.com
Many recent legislations and international principles tend to apply the pre-contractual duty of disclosure as one of the most substantial principles governing the pre-contracting phase, such as Article 1112-1 of the Amended French Civil Code of 2016, Article 1337 of the Amended Italian Civil Code and Article 13 of chapter 2 of the Common European Sales Law, etc. However, the Palestinian legislature has ignored enacting legal provisions imposing the pre-contractual duty of disclosure which causes legislative deficiencies in the legislative remedies of the subject of pre-contractual duty of disclosure. In this regard, this paper suggests orientations for the formulation of the provisions of the pre-contractual duty of disclosure in the Palestinian Civil Code Draft (PDCC). To do so, a comparative analytical approach with the French civil code is used to illustrate the Palestinian legislative deficiencies and the urgent need to legislate a legal article which obligates the negotiating party to disclose any substantial information for the satisfaction of the other party. As such, the contractual equilibrium entails that the pre-contractual duty of disclosure has its own independent essence from all the theories that the jurisprudence adopted as a legal basis for this duty.
Keywords: Duty of disclosure, pre-contractual obligations, Palestinian civil code draft, economic contractual equilibrium, negotiation phase.

Muhammad Bahrul Ulum
Faculty of Law, University of Jember, Indonesia
Corresponding author: muhd.bahrul@unej.ac.id
The global use of genetically modified (GM) crops is rapidly expanding. While the advent of this agricultural biotechnology offers new promises to cater to the rising demand for Indonesia’s food security, the government should ensure its safety. This paper examines the regulatory regime over biosafety in Indonesia by considering the global fragmentation of biosafety regulation that debates its impact on environmental and health aspects. After Indonesia ratified the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, which both specifically become the global guideline on how domestic biosafety policies are regulated, environmental and health issues are among the priorities which the use of GM crops contests to the precautionary approach. Amidst the insufficient scientific ground on its safety, GM crops' use is supposed to result in adverse impacts, and the suspicion over the safety of such a new cutting-edge agricultural technology ended with a series of rejections. This paper's results reveal that amongst the global contention over the regulatory regime on biosafety, which resulted in the bifurcation of the biosafety regulation, Indonesia has added to the new polarization. This polarization includes the release of GM crops certification, and Indonesia's desire to regulating biosafety deliberates over the definition and translation of biosafety in the domestic regulatory regime against the global regulatory diversity of biosafety.
Keywords: Biosafety, GM crops, Precautionary principle.

1Muhamad Helmi Muhamad Khair, 2Haswira Nor Mohamad Hashim & 3Maria Anagnostopoulou
1&2Faculty of Law, UiTM Shah Alam
3The British Museum, London United Kingdom
1Corresponding author: muham8041@uitm.edu.my
This paper explores the adoption of Paul Samuelson’s Public Good Theory as a theoretical justification for a permissive licensing scheme enabling the use, and re-use orphan works in Malaysia. Orphan works are copyright-protected works with unlocatable or unidentified right holders, and are currently on the rise due to the proliferation of unregistered, anonymous, and abandoned copyright works. The literature denotes the challenges arising from the difficulty faced by potential users in obtaining the permission for creative and innovative use of orphan works as required under Copyright law. Such challenges impede the potential use and re-use of orphan works for the purpose of knowledge dissemination, progress in the arts, preservation and digitisation activities. This paper contributes to the current body of knowledge by canvassing two important issues. The first issue focuses on the challenges faced by potential users to use and re-use orphan works in Malaysia. The second is Paul Samuelson’s Public Good as a theoretical justification for permissive license to use and re-use orphan works. It is anticipated that a legislative reform grounded on Paul Samuelson’s Public Good Theory will spur grassroots innovations, creativity and entrepreneurialism among members of the public. The permissive licensing scheme supports global calls for legislative reform of copyright law to facilitate the use and reuse of orphan works.
Keywords: Copyright law, Orphan works, public good theory, licensing, innovation.

Kamilah Wati Mohd, Fareed Mohd Hassan, 1Intan Nadia Ghulam Khan & Izawati Wook
Faculty of Syariah and Law, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia
1Corresponding author: intan@usim.edu.my
The Orang Asli group forms a minority community in Peninsular Malaysia, whose livelihood mostly depends on their land and the surrounding area. Dispute over customary land rights of Orang Asli has been continual in Malaysia although Malaysian Courts, in several cases, have upheld the Common Law rights of Orang Asli to their customary lands. This poses a challenge to some Orang Asli communities and State Governments. Based on focus group discussion, profiling survey, and library research methods, this paper analyses the land rights of Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia, by placing focus on Orang Asli in Kampung Parit Gong, Jelebu, Negeri Sembilan. The findings indicate that the Kampung Parit Gong Orang Asli community has been strictly adhering to the customs of ‘adat perpatih’ since yesteryears, and that they highly value the land, both through usage of land and by inheritance. Several important concerns were raised by the Orang Asli in Kampung Parit Gong, particularly on the security over their rights on the said customary land and the guarantee of their future generations’ socio-economic wellbeing. Having said that, this paper proposes several legal and administrative measures to not only address the uprising issues, but also to ascertain that the rights of Orang Asli residing in Peninsular Malaysia are secured.
Keywords: Orang Asli, Customary Land Rights, Kampung Parit Gong, Negeri Sembilan.

(The Suitability of Laws for the Protection of Traditional Design of Orang Iban in Sarawak)
1Shahrina Anis Samsudin, 2Nazura Abdul Manap, 3Safinaz Mohd. Hussein
Fakulti Undang-Undang, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
1Corresponding author: shahrinaanis@gmail.com
Corak tradisional Orang Iban yang semakin mendapat perhatian telah ditiru, dieksploitasi, digunakan tanpa kebenaran dan digunakan dalam keadaan yang menghina Orang Iban. Artikel ini bertujuan untuk memberikan gambaran tentang undang-undang yang sesuai bagi melindungi pengungkapan kebudayaan tradisional (PKT), terutamanya corak tradisional. Hal ini kerana terdapat pelbagai jenis undang-undang yang digunakan di seluruh dunia dalam melindungi PKT dan tiada instrumen undang-undang antarabangsa yang khusus diperuntukkan untuk melindungi PKT. Selain daripada itu, objektif artikel ini juga bertujuan untuk mencadangkan undang-undang yang sesuai digunakan di Malaysia untuk melindungi corak tradisional Orang Iban daripada perspektif PKT. Kajian perpustakaan dilakukan berdasarkan sumber primer dan sekunder seperti buku, kertas-kertas kajian dan dokumen perundangan melalui pangkalan data elektronik dan carian Internet menggunakan kata kunci seperti perlindungan warisan budaya, perlindungan pengungkapan kebudayaan tradisional, warisan Orang Asal dan perlindungan corak Orang Asal. Dapatan kajian diasingkan dan dibincangkan mengikut jenis undang-undang yang dicadangkan iaitu undang-undang warisan budaya, undang-undang harta intelek, gabungan undang-undang, undang-undang adat dan undang-undang sui generis. Hasil kajian menunjukkan tiada satu jenis undang-undang yang dipersetujui di peringkat antarabangsa untuk melindungi PKT. Kajian ini mencadangkan supaya undang-undang warisan budaya dan harta intelek sedia ada dipinda dan digunakan secara bersama-sama untuk memberikan perlindungan yang pantas untuk beberapa aspek keperluan Orang Iban terhadap corak tradisional mereka. Namun begitu, satu kerangka perundangan baru yang khusus (sui generis) harus digubal untuk memberikan perlindungan yang menyeluruh dan untuk jangka masa yang panjang bagi corak tradisional Orang Iban.
Kata kunci: Corak, Harta Intelek, Perlindungan, Pengungkapan Kebudayaan Tradisional (PKT), Warisan Budaya.
Iban’s traditional designs that are gaining attention have been copied, exploited, and used without any authorisation or in derogatory manners. This article intends to provide an overview on the laws suitable to be used in protecting traditional cultural expressions (TCEs), especially traditional designs. This is due to the variety of laws used around the world in protecting TCEs and the absence of international legal instruments that provide protection to the TCEs specifically. Besides, the objective of this article is also to suggest suitable laws to be used in Malaysia to protect the Iban’s traditional designs from the TCEs perspective. Literature review method is applied based on primary and secondary sources from books, research papers and legal documents which was implemented by means of electronic database and internet search using key terms such as protection of cultural heritage, protection of traditional cultural expressions, indigenous heritage and protection of indigenous designs. The results were then separated and discussed according to the type of laws suggested, namely, cultural heritage law, intellectual property law and combination of different laws, customary law, and sui generis law. The finding showed that there was no single type of law that had been agreed upon at the international level to be used in protecting TCEs. This writing suggested that the existing cultural heritage and intellectual property law be amended and used together to provide immediate protection for some aspects of the Iban’s traditional design. However, a new and specific legal framework (sui generis) needs to be enacted in order to provide a comprehensive protection to the Iban’s traditional design in the long term.
Keywords: Intellectual Property, Pattern, Protection, Traditional cultural expressions (TCEs), Cultural Heritage.

(Literature Analysis on Syariah Criminal Trial Procedures for Person with Disabilities in Syariah Court)
1Muhammad Ariffin Surdi Roslan, 2Hasnizam Hashim, 3Ahmad Syukran Baharuddin & 4Azman Ab Rahman
1,2,3&4Fakulti Syariah dan Undang-Undang, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia
3Centre of Research for Fiqh Forensics and Judiciary (CFORSJ), Institut Sains Islam, 71800, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia
2Corresponding author: hasnizam@usim.edu.my
Pada masa kini, tidak diketahui sejauh mana mahkamah Syariah di Malaysia mengendalikan kes-kes jenayah Syariah yang membabitkan Orang Kurang Upaya (OKU). Akta dan Enakmen Tatacara Jenayah Syariah Negeri-negeri tidak memperincikan tatacara perbicaraan yang tertentu bagi kes-kes jenayah Syariah membabitkan OKU. Ketiadaan satu tatacara perbicaraan khusus menimbulkan kebimbangan tentang penjagaan hak-hak OKU semasa perbicaraan kes-kes jenayah Syariah. Sehubungan dengan itu, kajian ini dijalankan adalah untuk menganalisis literatur mengenai tatacara perbicaraan kes jenayah Syariah bagi OKU di Mahkamah Syariah. Kajian kualitatif ini menggunakan kaedah analisis dokumen dan temu bual pakar iaitu Hakim Mahkamah Syariah dan Pegawai Penyelidik mahkamah Syariah. Analisis literatur sangat penting untuk mendapatkan gambaran menyeluruh mengenai perkembangan Undang-undang Tatacara Jenayah Syariah dan isu-isu dasar yang berlaku antara golongan OKU dan mahkamah Syariah. Kajian ini juga penting kerana ianya selari dengan hasrat kerajaan melalui Pelan Tindakan OKU 2016-2022 dalam menggalakkan penyelidikan dan pembangunan OKU untuk usaha penambahbaikan dalam segenap aspek termasuk sistem perundangan Syariah. Dapatan kajian mendapati golongan OKU menghadapi halangan berbentuk fizikal, sosial dan budaya ketika proses perbicaraan. Sehubungna dengan itu, wujud keperluan untuk mengkaji perundangan Syariah semasa di Malaysia bagi menjunjung keadilan dan pemeliharaan hak-hak mereka. Diharapkan kajian ini menjadi panduan dan rujukan pihak berautoriti apabila mengkaji tatacara perbicaraan OKU dan perundangan pada masa hadapan.
Kata kunci: Mahkamah Syariah, Orang Kelainan Upaya, Tatacara Perbicaraan, Tatacara Jenayah Syariah.
Details on how the Syariah Court in Malaysia handle Syariah criminal cases involving Persons With Disabilities (PWD) are very limited. Present Federal Acts and State Enactments on Syariah Criminal Procedure do not offer specific information regarding trial procedures for PWD. The lack of specific trial procedures raises questions about the protection of rights of PWD during Syariah criminal case trials. Therefore, the objective of this study is to analyse literatures on Syariah criminal trial procedures for PWD in Syariah Court. Document analysis and interviews of subject matter experts are methods used for this qualitative study. Literature analysis is important as to obtain an overall understanding about the developments on Syariah Criminal Procedure and main issues occuring between PWD and Syariah court. This study also corresponds with the national Action Plan for PWD 2016-2022 in promoting research and developments for PWD especially for improvements of Islamic Law. The results of this study indicated that PWD encounter physical, social and cultural barriers during trial and there is need for revising current Syariah laws in Malaysia to uphold justice and protect their right of fair trial. It is hoped that this study can be used as reference by revelant authorities in conducting more studies on trial procedures for PWD.
Keywords: Persons with Disabilities, Syariah Criminal Procedure, Syariah court, Trial procedures.

(Managing Social Media in the Employment Relationship Landscape)
1Nazruzila Razniza Mohd Nadzri & 2Kamal Halili Hassan
1Fakulti Perniagaan, Komunikasi dan Undang-undang, Universiti Antarabangsa INTI, Malaysia
2Fakulti Undang-undang, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia
1Corresponding author: nazru.zila@newinti.edu.my
Media sosial adalah medium interaksi yang sangat berpengaruh di era ‘internet benda’ ini. Kesan sesuatu hantaran di media sosial diketahui umum adalah tidak menentu. Dalam konteks pekerja, mencatat dan membuat hantaran di media sosial boleh mengundang implikasi terhadap perhubungan pekerjaan. Artikel ini mengupas kedudukan hantaran pada media sosial oleh pekerja dari perspektif undang-undang pekerjaan. Perkaitan antara kuasa prerogatif pengurusan, hak privasi pekerja serta tanggungjawab majikan dan pekerja untuk saling mempercayai dan menyakini dianalisis untuk menilai sejauh mana impak tingkah laku pekerja di media sosial kepada kontrak pekerjaan. Objektif berkenaan dicapai dengan menggunakan metodologi doktrinal dan pendekatan analisa yang kritis dan perbandingan. Hasilnya adalah menemukan aspek-aspek yang boleh dipertimbangkan oleh majikan dan pekerja bagi menguruskan penggunaan media sosial supaya tidak menjejaskan perhubungan pekerjaan. Memandangkan tiada penyelidikan khusus tentang isu ini dalam konteks Malaysia, ia berupaya menambah nilai kepada korpus ilmu sedia ada terutamanya dalam perundangan buruh di Malaysia.

Kata kunci: Undang-undang buruh, Hak prerogatif pengurusan, Hak privasi, Perhubungan pekerjaan, Media sosial
Social media is a prevalent medium of communication in the era of ‘internet of things’. The implication of a posting on social media is widely known as uncertain. In the perspective of an employee, writing and posting on social media could implicate the employment relationship. This article scrutinises the legal position of employee’s posting on social media. The relationship between management prerogative power, employees’ privacy right and mutual trust and confidence obligation of employer and employee is analysed to evaluate the extent employees’ behavior on the social media may affect employment contract. The objective is realised by applying doctrinal methodology and critical analysis and comparison approaches. The consequence is to find aspects that can be considered by employer and employee in managing the use of social media so that it will not risk the employment relationship. Considering in Malaysia that there is no specific research on this issue, the research is to add value to the existing corpus of labour law knowledge.
Keywords: Labour law; Management prerogative right; Right of privacy; Employment relationship; Social media

UUM Journal of Legal Studies
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06010 UUM Sintok, Kedah Darul Aman, Malaysia.

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